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Women in Antiquity 18.docx

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CLAS 2051
Fiona Black

The Age of Augustus and the Roman Empire  Cleopatra + Julius Caesar- Romans elect to Caesar take over, only for a bit, but he makes it so he can rule forever, gets killed off my Brutus; Cleopatra + Mark Antony- Antony becomes an enemy of the state because he is with a Cleopatra- Octavia (Augustus) goes to battle with Cleopatra and Antony, Antony dies, Cleopatra kills herself  Ara pacis (The Altar of Peace) o people want peace o idea that peace begins in the family unit- "family first" o symbol of period of peace o features children, women, not usually featured in Roman architecture- depicts close family unit: the matron as loyal to her husband even after death, takes care of children, make clothing- Augustus typifies his family as an example, his wife makes his clothes o saw women as having too much money and power, were not fulfilling their role of having legitimate children  Lex Julia "By the Lex Julia senators and their descendants are forbidden to marry freedwomen or women who had themselves followed the profession of the stage, or whose father or mother had done so; other freeborn persons are forbidden to marry a common prostitute, or a procuress, or a woman caught in adultery, or one condemned in a public action, or one who has followed the profession of the stage." cf. lus liberorum (the law of children) o women were not likely actresses in serious roles- likely the profession of the stage refers to erotic natured performances such as mimes and dancers (blurred the lines between prostitution and acting) o also, evidence of women gladiators o an attempt to form legitimate, long lasting relationships leading to legitimate children (birth rate dropping, infant mortality was high)  The Restoration of the Past o Cornelia Africana heralded as a perfect matron (rejected Tolonomy when he ask her for marriage) o often looking for family values- look to idealized past o dining practices- in the Greek world, men and proper women did not dine together publicly (except men with prostitutes, where they reclined together at meals); the Romans looked at that sort of behaviour (men laying next to women) as unacceptable, encouraged sexual conduct, however, evidence suggests that this did occur  The Family of Augutus o Livia (wife) 58 B
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