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Archaeology of Religion 9.docx

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CLAS 2531
Illaria Battiloro

Historical and Geographical Context  central/southern Italy  Rome was built on seven hills- earliest temples and sanctuaries were built on some of these hills  some legends claim that Rome was founded by Greeks (because they consider the Greeks to be a superior civilization)- in actuality, the Romans were indigenous people to Italywas built on a river- allowed Rome to expand, connected the Romans with the Etruscans (modern Tuscany, influenced Roman culture) in the north and the Greeks in the south- not just commercial connection, but cultural connection, assimilating cultural models  Monarchy: 753-509 BCE o not much archaeological evidence  Republic: 509-27 BCE o 6th century BCE  revolution in building at Rome both in material and in scale  domestic structures testify such a change  this is the beginning of the  areas which developed in the 6th century BCE: Forum Romanum; Capitoline Hill o 509 BCE: the Romans constructed a form of political organization we call a Republic o the Roman Republic was more like a confederation of states under the control of a representative, central authority o from the 4th century BCE the Romans started an expansionist strategy of conquest o the Romans took over and conquered "most" of Europe- most of the well- preserved sacred places are outside the actual city of Rome (most of the monuments within the city were destroyed by progress or invaders)  Empire: 27 BCE - 476 CE  Rise of Christianity o Christianity rose under the influence of the Roman empire, effected how we see and interpret Roman religion o Christianity borrowed from Roman religions The Sacred Space: Temples and Sanctuaries in the Roman World  IMPORTANT: pay attention to differences between Greek, Roman, and Christian worlds  religion, for Roman people, was not individualistic- it was a religion of community (vs. individuality of Christianity)- the individual has a secondary role  Roman religion is heavily politically influenced o Roman religion has no founder who was sent by the gods- the founders of Rome itself introduced Roman religion as part of the social and political life of the city o linked to political, social, administrative life of the city  Pomerium- a boundary that separated the city of Rome from its territory, was established by the official foundation rite of the city- not necessarily a wall, in
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