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Lecture 2

PHYS1041 Notes Week 2

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Mount Allison University
PHYS 1041
Dr.David Fleming

Physics 1041 Notes January 13th Waves • wave: traveling disturbance that transmits energy through a medium • longitudinal wave: oscillations move in the same direction as the wave propagation itself • transverse wave: oscillations move at a 90 degree angle to the wave propagation • standing wave: a driving process creating a wave pattern that appears to stay in place Important variables for waves • A = amplitude, the maximum value of wave disturbance away from the equilibrium position (SI units of meters) • λ (lamda) = wavelength, distance over which a pattern repeats itself, i.e. from max point to max point (SI units of meters) • T = period, time of one complete oscillation or wave pattern (SI units of seconds) • f = frequency, number of wave cycles that pass per unit time (SI units of Hertz) • v = velocity, speed of travel through a medium (SI units of meters per second) • F = force (SI units of newtons) • m = mass (SI units of kilograms) • g = acceleration due to gravity, equal to approximately 9.81m/s • L = length of object, i.e. string (SI units of meters) Important equations for waves: 1 f = v = fλ F = mg v = F T m / L Other important equations: A − B Percent error = × 100 % where A=measured value and B=theoretical value B A− B Percent difference = ×100% where A and B are two measured values 1 (A+ B) 2 January 15th Parameters of waves λ= wavelength v= speed of wave f=frequency all related by the equation = fλ Waves on a string Two fixed ends: 1st harmonic (Fundamental Frequency) 1 L = λ 2 2nd harmonic (1st overtone) L = λ 3rd harmonic (2nd overtone) L = 3λ 2 etc.. mλ The equation for harmonics with two fixed strings isL = where m is equal to the 2 number of harmonics. One fixed end and one free end: 1st harmonic (Fundamental Frequency) 1 L = 4λ 2nd harmonic (1st overtone) L = 3λ 4 3rd harmonic (2nd overtone) L = 5λ 4 etc.. (2m −1)λ The equation for harmonics with two fixed strings isL = where m is equal to 2 the number of
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