Physics 1041

Notes

April 7th

Light bright fringes:

θλ

sindm

=

Dark spots between the bright spots:

θλ

sin)

2

1

(dm

=+

Single Opening:

•even for a single opening, light waves coming through that opening can undergo

interference

•this still creates a pattern of bright and dark spots, but less pronounced

•the brightest spot is the central spot with less intense spots on either side,

becoming dimmer with order number

Rayleigh criterion:

•the 2 peaks are just barely resolvable as distinct objects if the central maximum of

one of the objects corresponds with the minimum of the other

•for a rectangular opening, Rayleigh criterion occurs for:

a

λ

θ

=

min

where

min

θ

is

the minimum angle of separation (in radians), λ is the wavelength of the light, and

a is the width of the slit opening

•a complete circle has 360 degrees, or 2π radians

•1 radian = 360º/2π

•for a circular opening, Rayleigh criterion occurs for

D

λ

θ

22.1

min

=

where

min

θ

is

the minimum angle of separation (in radians), λ is the wavelength of the light, and

D is the diameter of the circular opening

•also,

L

s

=

θ

when s is the distance between the two objects, and L is the distance

between the objects and the opening

April 9th

Modern Physics:

•in 1905, Einstein's early work involved studying light

•it was discovered that light has wave-particle duality: it can behave as both

•we think of electrons as a point particle with a negative charge, however they are

also capable of behaving like a wave

•the wavelength of the wave of matter is equal to

p

h

=

λ

, where h is equal to

Planck's constant, 6.63 x 10-34Js and p is equal to momentum (mass times

velocity)

•therefore all matter can behave as a wave; however we do not see them

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