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Quest for Enlightenment 6.docx

4 Pages

Religious Studies
Course Code
RELG 1681
Sam Borsman

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Shaiva Traditions  devoted to Shiva, often involving renunciation, ascetic practices, or Tantra (taboo practices ie. sexual practices; use of mandala- geometric patterns that serve as symbols of power in the cosmos; mantra "Om Navah Shivaya")  Shiva is a god of paradox- both the ideal householder and the ideal ascetic; also embodies female and male principles; creation and destruction o "The erotic ascetic." -Wendy Doniger o build up of ascetic "fire" (tapas) is a powerful, contained sexual energy (ie. standing on one leg for years) o because Shiva has built up such a large tapas, he becomes the embodiment of male sexual creative energy o o ^Shiva the Ascetic o Shiva Nataraja: Lord of the Dance- Shiva dances the universe into creation (drum), flame in hand symbolizes destruction  The Shiva linga o o Phallic (?) representation of Shiva o the life-creating power of the god o placed on top of the image of female power (yoni), as union of male and female o female energy- Shakti Goddesses  some goddesses are peaceful and some are ferocious o Wendy Doniger- two main types (NOT Hindu construction)  goddess of tooth  ferocious, uncontrollable (Kali- see below)  flaunt brahmanical standards (varnashramadharma) of womanhood  non-Aryan deities?  but brahmanical Hinduism has tried to incorporate them  women can be very dangerous, unless they follow their dharma, bad things can happen, reinforces idea of managing women  uncontrollable, independent, warlike  blood sacrifices and alcohol offered  prohibited in traditional, brahmanical ritual  goddess of breast  mothering, nurturing  ideal womanhood  ie. Parvati, consort of Shiva; Lakshmi, goddess of fertility, prosperity;  village goddesses  often aniconic (stones, trees, branches)  often goddesses of disease who both protect and infect depending if they are worshiped correctly  ritual often performed by people of lower caste and
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