Advanced Anatomy Notes.docx

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Department
Fitness and Health Promotion
Course
ANAT1220
Professor
Judith Halaiko
Semester
Winter

Description
Anatomical Position: • Body standing upright • Feet parallel • Arms hanging by sides • Palms & face directed forward • Thumbs facing away from body What is the purpose of Anatomical Position? • Body position providing point of reference that aids in describing structures, positioning & movements of the body! Anatomical Directional/Positional Terms • Anterior –Front side – towards front • Posterior – Back side – towards back • Lateral – away from midline • Medial – closer to midline Right (R) & Left (L) sides of body - In reference to R & L of CLIENT…..not R & L of observer -------------------------------------------------------------- For Extremities only: • Distal – Farther from trunk (away from attachment) • Proximal – Closer to truck (toward attachment) • ------------------------------- • Superior ( Cranial, Cephalic) –Above; at higher level; toward head • Deep –Farther from body’s surface ( eg. Close to bone) • Substitutions: Ventral – Anterior • Dorsal – Top of foot; posterior • Plantar – Bottom of foot • Prone – Face downward position of the body; stomach lying • Supine – Lying on back; face upward position of body • Contralateral – Pertaining or relating to opposite side • Ipsilateral – On same side • Bilateral – Relating to R & L sides of body OR of a body structure such as R & L extremities Combination Terms: Anteromedial – Anterior surface, closer to midline Inferolateral – Inferior side of body, away from midline Posteroinferior –Posterior side, inferior Anatomical Regions • Anatomical terminology also used to describe specific regions of body…. o EG. Radial, bronchial Body Cavities • Dorsal • Ventral • Thoracic • Abdominopelvic Dorsal Body Cavity Subdivided into Cranial & Spinal cavities Cranial Cavity – Fluid – filled space within skull Spinal Cavity – Formed by processes of Spinal Vertebrae Ventral Cavity – contains: • Thoracic = everything above diaphragm • Superior abdominal • Abdominal pelvic cavity Ventral Body Cavity Subdivided into • Thoracic & Abdominal pelvic cavities o Separated by diaphragm Thoracic Cavity – Further divided into Pleural & Pericardial cavities • Collectively contain Lungs, Heart, associated organs of cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, thymus, and inferior portions of esophagus. Abdominopelvic cavity • Further divided into separate Abdominal & Pelvic cavities o Collectively contain:  Stomach  Small intestine  Portions of large intestine  Urinary bladder  Reproductive organs Planes of Motion • SAGITTAL PLANE • FRONTAL PLANE (CORONAL) • TRANSVERSE PLANE (HORIZONTAL) SAGITTAL PLANE - Vertical plane that divides body into L and R parts • “Midsagittal” refers to equal parts (L & R) • Any movement PARALLEL to this is performed in the Sagittal Plane Medial –Lateral Axis of \Rotation (broomstick thru shoulder lateral to medial) • Occurs about medial-lateral (ML) Axis Sagittal Plane Joint Movements • Flexion – decrease angle between segments (UP) • Extension – increase angle between segments (DOWN) • Dorsiflexion – Point toes up • Plantar Flexion – Point toes down • Scapular Protraction • Scapular Retraction eg. Push up…..going up is protraction and going down is retraction FRONTAL PLANE (CORONAL) - Vertical plane that divides body into anterior & posterior parts • Any movement parallel to this is performed in Frontal Plane Anterior – Posterior Axis - occurs about Anterior – Posterior (AP) Axis (broom stick thru front to back) Frontal Plane Joint Movements • Abduction – Move AWAY from midline • Adduction - Move TOWARD midline • Elevation - Move shoulder girdle UP • Depression - Move shoulder girdle DOWN eg. shrug • Eversion - Lift Lateral border of foot • Inversion - Lift Medial border of foot L/R Lateral Trunk Flexion - Bend trunk to L/R Radial Deviation (Abduction) –Move toward Radial Styloid Process Ulnar Deviation (Adduction) - Move toward Ulnar Styloid Process TRANSVERSE (HORIZONTAL) PLANE - Horizontal plane that runs from L to R and Font to Back….divides body into top and bottom parts (broom stick up center) • Rotational and Horizontal movements occur within Transverse Plane(Plane goes horizontal & Axis goes Longitudinal) Longitudinal Axis - Occurs about a Longitudinal (L) Axis Transverse Plane Joint Movements • Medial /Internal Rotation – Anterior surface rotates Medially • Lateral/External Rotation - Anterior surface rotates Laterally • Pronation -Rotate Palm down toward Posterior • Supination -Rotate Palm up toward Anterior • Horizontal Adduction/Flexion - Move towards Midline • Horizontal Abduction/Extension – Move Away from Midline LOOKED at pg 4 chart #2 “extras” in note book. & pg. 7 chart #2 Relationship between Planes and Axes Examples Oblique Plane - Combination or 2 or more Planes End of Unit 1 Motion Articulations (Joints) of the Human Body Articulation…….site at which 2 or more bones meet 3 Fundamental Functions: i. Link bones of skeleton together ii. Allow mobility of skeleton iii. Protective role (prevent bone-to-bone contact) Joint Classification • Generally classified functionally….BUT…May be subdivided to indicate structural differences • Functional classification based upon quantity of joint movement • Structural sub-classification…references material(s) binding bones together AND whether joint cavity is present 3 Functional Classification 1. Synarthroses Joints 2. Amphiarthroses Joints 3. Diarthroses Joints Note: Synarthroses and Amphiarthroses joints largely restricted to Axial skeleton (Spinal, Thoracic, and Pelvic regions) Diarthroses joints predominate in limbs where greater range of motion is necessary Synarthroses Joints: • Immovable joints – minimal-to-no movement in response to applied forces • Structurally, referred to as Fibrous, Cartilaginous or Fused bony joints o E.g. Sutures between bones of skull ( only place where fused) o Breast bone o Coxal bones Sutures are joints found only in the SKULL • Bony edges interlock and short dense connective tissue fiber hold the bones together Amphiarthroses Joints • Slightly moveable joints…limited, but relatively greater movement • Structurally, referred to as fibrous or cartilaginous joints o E.g. symphysis between coxae of pelvis (and spine) Diarthroses Joints • Freely movable joints…MAY permit wide range of motion • Structurally, referred to as Synovial Joints *** pg. 104 -105 o E.g. shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee o Held together by synovial capsule---they aren’t fused together Joint Range of Motion (ROM) & Stability Joint Strength vs. Mobility • Joints cannot be both very strong/stable AND allow great ROM! • The greater the ROM, the weaker the joint becomes • More susceptible to injury when moved beyond “normal” ROM Factors Affecting ROM i. Shapes of articulating surfaces ii. Presence of other bones, muscle, or fat pads surrounding joint iii. Presence of accessory ligaments iv. Tension on tendons attached to articulating bones during muscular contraction Joint Movement Classification 4 Types: 1. Nonaxial: Very minimal sliding movements permitted E.g. Facets of vertebrae 2. Uniaxial/Monaxial Movement: occurs in 1 Plane of motion (about 1 Axis of rotation) E.g. Elbow joint (flexion & extension) 3. Biaxial Movement: Occurs in 2 Planes of motion (about 2 Axes) E.g. Wrist & ankle joints 4. Multiaxial/Triaxial Movement: Occurs in ALL 3 Planes of motion (about All 3 Axes) E.g. hip & shoulder joints Synovial Joints • Specialized for movement • Typically found at ends of long bones • Separate bones via enclosed articular cartilages LOOKED at pg. 105 Fig.1 ALL synovial joints have 6 basic characteristics: 1) Joint capsule - encloses joints 2) Synovial membrane lining joint capsule 3) Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid (lubricate joint for movement) 4) Articular cartilages -covers surface of the bone 5) Accessory structures/tissues 6) Sensory nerves and blood vessels – running thru joint capsule Structural Classification of Limitations PICTURES PG 111 FIG 6 1. Plane/Gliding Joint (Nonaxial) • Relatively flat (or slightly curved faces) articular surfaces slide across one another (minimal movement) • Ligaments usually restrict or prevent rotation • E.g. Ends of clavicles; between carpals/tarsals; between articular facets of adjacent spinal vertebrae 2. Hinge Joint (Monaxial) • Permit angular movement in 1 plane (similar to opening/closing door) (flexion extension) • E.g. Elbow joint; knee joint 3. Pivot Joint (Monaxial • Permit only rotation • E.g. Pivot joint between Atlas (C1)and Axis (C2) vertebrae allows head rotation; Radius pivots around Ulna in forearm 4. Condylar/Ellipsoidal Joint (Biaxial) (Flexion & Extension) & (Abduction & Adduction) • Oval articular face nestles within depression on opposing surface • Angular motion occurs in 2 planes…along or across length of oval…NO Rotation • E.g. Connect phalanges (fingers/toes) with metacarpals/metatarsals; wrist joint 5. Saddle Joint (Biaxial • Extremely mobile, allowing extensive angular motion without rotation • E.g. Base of thumb 6. Ball-and-Socket Joint (Multiaxial/Triaxial • Round head of 1 bone rests within cup shaped depression in another • Capable of all combinations of movements (largest range of motion—BUT weakest) Characteristics of Connective Tissue • Comprised of collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers • Avascular( nutrients obtained from bone and synovial fluid) Connective Tissue Functions 1. Establish structural framework with skeleton 2. Support, surround, and connect other tissues (blood e.g. supply tissues with O2) 3. Protect organs 4. Transport fluid and dissolved materials 5. Store energy (adipose) 6. Defend body from micro-organisms Dense Connective Tissue Poper 1. Ligaments 2. Tendons 3. Aponeuroses 1. Ligaments: • Passive bands connecting bones to each other • Do not actively contract; usually have limited stretch capability Functions: • Guide and restrict articular movement • Stabilize joints 2. Tendons: • Connect muscle to bones and muscle to cartilage • Small amount of blood supply (minimal vascularization) Functions: • Contain afferent (sensory) receptors, Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO’s), that sense tension and initiate reflexes inhibiting excessive tension during muscle contraction 3. Aponeuroses • Collagenous sheets/ribbons resembling flat, broad, very wide tendons • May cover surface of muscle and assist in attaching superficial muscles to another muscle/structure Supporting Connective Tissue 1) Cartilage 2) Bone 1) Cartilage 3 Primary types of cartilaginous tissue: 1) Elastic Cartilage: Extremely resilient and flexible (E.g. Outer ear) Function: Provides moveable shape & support to structures 2) Fibrocartilage: Extremely durable and tough (E.g. Pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks) Function: Resists compression, absorbs shock, & prevents bone-to-bone contact 3) Hyaline Cartilage: Weakest and most common type of cartilage (E.g. Connectors between ribs and sternum, knee, elbow, etc.) Function: Covers articulating ends of bone that terminate at synovial joints to minimize contact stresses (also provides smoother movement and protection) 2)Bone 2 types of bone: 1) Compact Bone (contains blood vessels) 2) Spongy Bone (NO blood vessels) The Skeletal System pg. 28 Functions: 1) Support: bones provide body’s infrastructure 2) Storage of Minerals: 98% of body’s calcium is in bones 3) Blood cell production: bone marrow produces new blood cells 4) Protection: bones surround many delicate organs 5) Leverage: muscles pull on skeleton to produce movement Consists of 2 divisions: 1) Axial 2) Appendicular NOTE: 206 bones total 1) Axial Skeleton: • 80 bones Includes: • Bones of Skull, Thorax, and Vertebral Column • Contains special sensory organs for taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision • Forms Longitudinal Axis of body (rotational) Function: • Support & Protect organs in Dorsal AND Ventral body cavities • Attachment sites for muscle that: o Adjust posture of head, neck & trunk o Move Thoracic cage for Respiration o Stabilize Appendicular skeleton • Provides structural framework for respiratory muscles 3) Appendicular Skeleton: • 126 Bones Includes: • Bones of Upper limbs, Lower limbs, and supporting elements ( Example: Shoulder & Pelvic girdles) Function: • Support changing positions within external environment: o Standing o Walking o Sitting o Dressing Classification of Bones (by Shape) pg. 17-19 1) Long Bones 2) Flat Bones 3) Pneumatized Bones 4) Irregular Bones 5) Short Bones 6) Sesamoid Bones 7) Sutural Bones 1) Long Bones: • 2 ends (epiphyses)(bone marrow located in spongy bone of epiphyses) • Relatively strong in response to load-bearing activity (push, pull, lift, etc.) Function: • Provide levers for movement Example: Humerus, Femur – 2 prime levers 2) Flat Bones: • Strong, but relatively light (eg.”spongy bone sandwich”) Function: • Protect underlying soft tissues and offer extensive surface area for Skeletal muscle attachment • Examples: Skull, Sternum, Ribs, Scapulae 3) Pneumatized Bones: • Hollow or contain numerous air pockets (very light) • Example: Mastoid Process, Ethmoid (on face between eyes) 4) Irregular Bones: • Complex shapes with short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces Function: • Provide attachment sites for Skeletal muscles • Example: Vertebrae 5) Short Bones: • Box-like in appearance Function: • provide flexibility in movement Example: Carpals, Tarsals 6) Sesamoid Bones (“free Floating”) • Usually small, round, and flat • Develop inside Tendons and are most often encountered near Joints of Knees, Hands and Feet Function: • Protect Tendon and increase mechanical efficiency • Example: Patella, under “Big toe” 7) Sutural Bones: • Small, Flat, Oddly-shaped bones found between flat Cranial bones of skull in suture line (boarders are puzzle-like) • Example: Sutures of Skull Bone Marking Terminology Pg. 20 and 21 Skeletal Muscle: Tissue Function, Structure, & Organization Skeletal Muscle: 3 types of muscle tissue: 1) Skeletal 2) Cardiac 3) Smooth Skeletal Muscle: Behavioural Properties: 1) Excitability: ability to respond to stimulus (Example: Action Potential) 2) Conductivity: Electrical conductance occurs throughout entire plasma membrane of a muscle 3) Contractility: Ability to develop tension (harnessed by connective tissues) thereby contract 4) Extensibility: ability to stretch/lengthen 5) Elasticity: ability to return to normal length after stretch Skeletal Muscle: Specific Function Muscle fibers (example: Skeletal Muscle Cells) Have 1 Primary Function…..GENERATE FORCE • Accomplished through contraction/shortening of muscle fibers • Generates movement of bone across various joints in body General Structure & Organization • Muscle is comprised of fiber “fascicles” • Single fibers with fascicles consist of myofibrils with Actin(thin) & Myosin(thick) protein filaments • Filaments make up sarcomere units…. The Sarcomere “Basic Contractile Unit” Consists of: Myosin Filaments: • Generate force in filament head Actin Filaments: • Form core of thin filaments, interacting with Myosin heads Fiber Architecture • Differences in sarcomere alignment AND length strongly affect a muscles force- generating capacity 4 Classifications of muscle fiber alignment: 1) Parallel (Fusiform) 2) Pennate 3) Convergent 4) Circular Pg. 152 1) Parallel: Spindle-shaped fibers that run parallel to muscles longitudinal Axis and taper at tendinous attachment Example: Biceps Brachii Functionally, parallel arrangement facilitates rapid shortening of muscle…BUT… Limits force production! 2) Pennate: Feather-shaped fibers that lie at an oblique “Pennation” angle to muscles longitudinal Axis (angles vary) Forms: Unipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate Pennate muscles tend to generate relatively considerable force at the expense of speed! (Tend to attach to one tendon) 3) Convergent: • Spread out like a fan/triangle with tendonous attachment at tip • Versatile direction of pull..BUT…Relatively limited tension when all fibers contract…due to “opposing” muscle contraction 4) Circular: • Arranged around an opening or recess • Contraction results in decreased diameter of opening END UNIT #1 1 STTEST TO HERE  Advanced Human Anatomy Bones, Landmarks & Structures of Vertebral Column & Thorax start pg. 56 The Vertebral (Spinal) Column Performs Several Functions: 1) Encloses and Protects Spinal Cord 2) Support Skull 3) Supports weight of Head, Neck, & Trunk 4) Transfers weight to lower limbs 5) Helps maintain upright body position Bones of the Vertebral Column Adult Vertebral column consists of 26 bones: • Vertebra (24) • Sacrum (1) • Coccyx (1) Divided into Regions from Superior to Inferior: pg. 54 fig. 20 • Cervical (7) Vertebrae • Thoracic (12) Vertebrae • Lumbar (5) Vertebrae • Sacral (1): 5 fused Vertebrae • Coccygeal (1): 3-5 fused Vertebrae General Bone Landmarks of Vertebral Column pic.pg. 56 Cervical Vertebrae pic pg 57 (test) • Smallest and most superior vertebrae • Extend from Occipital bone to Superior Thorax • Contains largest diameter of Spinal Cord (diameter gradually decreases inferiorly) • Most MOBLIE and ACCESSIBLE of all spinal bones Function: 1) Support weight of the head 2) Allow head movement • Spinous Processes: relatively stumpy; may be split, resulting in a “bifid” process • Costal Processes: extension of bone from vertolateral body that attach to transverse processes • Transverse Foramina: result from hole between Costal Process and transverse Process (housing arteries & veins) Atlas ( C1) pg. 59 • Atlas has no body and articulates with Occipital Condyles Functions: •
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