Pest Management.docx

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Child and Family Studies
ENSC 1005
Heather Kaye

Monday March 4, 2013 Pest Management Pest- any species that is undesirable or a nuisance - In natural ecosystems natural enemies (predators, parasites, and disease organisms) control the population of most of the potential pest species -> nature’s checks and balances Pesticides- chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms we consider undesirable Types: Insecticides- kills undesirable insects Herbicides- kills undesirable weeds Fungicides- kills undesirable fungi Nematocides- kills undesirable roundworms Rodenticides- kills undesirable rodents - Naturally occurring chemicals in plants are produced to repel or kill herbivores that feed on plants (ex: dieffenbachia, milkweed, poinsettia, cocoa plant) First Generation Pesticides- natural chemicals usually taken from plants Examples: Basil- repels mosquitoes and flies Cayenne pepper – repels ants Spiders – repel cockroaches, spruce budworm, gypsy moths, aphids Second Generation Pesticides– synthetic (manmade) organic chemicals - DDT (1939) was the first second generation pesticide - See table 23.1 p. 553 for others Benefits: 1) Save lives – from insect transmitted disease (i.e. malaria, bubonic plague, typhus 2) Increase food supplies – 55% of world’s potential human food supply is lost to pests using pesticides reduces this loss 3) Increase profits for farmers – more crops for sale -> more money 4) Work faster and better than alternatives 5) When used properly, health risks low compared with benefits 6) Newer pesticides are safer and more effective than older pesticides – uses natural substances or organisms 7) New pesticides used at lower rates per unit area compared to older pesticides Problems: 1) Speeds up development of genetic resistance in pests 2) Some kill natural predators and parasites – may have kept another unknown pest in check but when k
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