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GMS. chap 11 notes.doc

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Global Management
Ashley Scarlett

Chapter 11: Leading and Leadership Development THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP Leadership: is process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks Leadership and Power: • leadership success is based on the ability to make things happen in ways that serve the goals of the team or org. • “power,” and leadership begins with the ways a manager uses power to influence the behaviour of other people Power: ability to get someone else to do something you want done, or make things happen the way you want. • desire to influence and control others for the good of the group or organization as a whole This “positive” face of power is the foundation of effective leadership. Position Power: Reward Power: is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people • involves use of incentives: pay raises, bonuses, promotions, special assignments, verbal/written compliments Coercive Power: is the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people manager may threaten him or her with verbal reprimands, pay penalties, or even termination • Legitimate Power: is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office Personal Power: Expert Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge Referent Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you • Reference is a power derived from charisma or interpersonal attractiveness Leadership and Vision: Vision: is a clear sense of the future Visionary Leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there • brings meaning to people's work; it makes what they do seem worthy and valuable Leadership as Service Servant Leadership: is follower-centred and committed to helping others in their work Empowerment: enables others to gain and use decision-making power Effective leaders empower others by providing them with: • Information • Responsibility • Authority • Trust LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND BEHAVIOURS Leadership Traits: • Drive • Self‐confidence • Creativity • Cognitive ability • Job‐relevant knowledge • Motivation • Flexibility • Honesty and integrity Leadership Behaviours Leadership Style: is the recurring pattern of behaviours exhibited by a leader Two dimensions of leadership style: 1. concern for the task to be accomplished 2. concern for the people doing the work • A leader high in concern for the task plans and defines the work to be done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear work standards, urges task completion, and monitors performance results • A leader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them Classic Leadership Styles Autocratic Style: acts in a unilateral command-and-control system Human Relation Style: emphasizes people over tasks Laissez-faire Style: displays a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude Democratic Style: emphasizes both tasks and people CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP Fiedler’s Contingency Model: Fred Fiedler: good leadership depends on a match between leadership style and situational demands Understanding Leadership Style Leadership style in Fiedler's model is measured on the least‐preferred co‐worker scale (LPC) • describes tendencies to behave either as a task‐motivated leader (low LPC score) or as a relationship‐motivated leader (high LPC score). Understanding Leadership Situations Three contingency variables are used to diagnose situational control: 1. Quality of leader–member relations (good or poor) measures the degree to which the group supports the lead- er 2. Task structure: (high or low) measures how much task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out 3. Position power: (strong or weak) measures degree of how much power a leader has to reward and punish subordi- nates Matching Leadership Style and Situation Proposition 1—a task‐oriented leader will be most successful in either very favourable (high‐control) or very un- favourable (low‐control) situations Proposition 2—a relationship‐oriented leader will be most successful in situations of moderate control Hersy- Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: In contrast to Fiedler's notion that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles They do so contingently and based on the maturity of followers, as indicated by their readiness to perform in a given sit- uation Possible combinations of task‐oriented and relationship‐oriented behaviors result in four leadership styles: 2 • Delegating • Participating • Selling • Telling • believe that leadership styles should be adjusted as followers change over time Path- Goal Leadership Theory Robert House: theory suggests that an effective leader is one who clarifies paths by which followers can achieve both task‐related and personal goals Path–goal theorists believe leaders should shift back and forth among these four leadership styles to create positive path–goal linkages: • Directive leadership —letting subordinates know what is expected • Supportive leadership —doing things to make work more pleasant • Achievement‐oriented leadership —setting challenging goals • Participative leadership —involving subordinates in decision‐making Path–Goal Contingencies The path–goal theory advises managers to use leadership styles that fit situational needs allows the leader to add value by contributing things that are missing from the situation or that need strengthening, and by avoiding redundant behaviors Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for Leadership: are factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader • they make leadership from the “outside” unnecessary because leadership is already provided from within the situation Leader-Member Exchange Theory The theory, recognizes that in most, leadership situations, not everyone is treated the same by the leader. People fall into “in‐groups” and “out‐groups,” and the group you are in can have quite a significant influence on your experience with the leader. Leader-Participation Model The Vroom–Jago leader–participation model indicates that leadership success results when the decision‐making method used by a leader best fits the problem being faced the leader's choices for making decisions fall into three categories: Authority Decision: is made by the leader and then communicated to the group Consultative Decision: is made by the leader after gathering info. and advice from group members Group Decision: is made by the group members themselves The Vroom–Jago model specifies that the leader's choice among the decision‐making methods is governed by three rules: (1) decision quality—based on who has the information needed for problem solving (2) decision acceptance—based on the importance of follower acceptance of the decision for its eventual imple- mentation; and (3) decision time—based on the time available to make and implement the decision. Consultative and group decisions work best when:
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