GMS200 Lecture Notes - Fred Fiedler, Situational Leadership Theory, Transactional Leadership

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Chapter 11: Leading and Leadership Development
THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership: is process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
Leadership and Power:
leadership success is based on the ability to make things happen in ways that serve the goals of the team or org.
“power,” and leadership begins with the ways a manager uses power to influence the behaviour of other people
Power: ability to get someone else to do something you want done, or make things happen the way you want.
• desire to influence and control others for the good of the group or organization as a whole This “positive” face of
power is the foundation of effective leadership.
Position Power:
Reward Power: is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people
• involves use of incentives: pay raises, bonuses, promotions, special assignments, verbal/written compliments
Coercive Power: is the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people
manager may threaten him or her with verbal reprimands, pay penalties, or even termination
Legitimate Power: is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office
Personal Power:
Expert Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge
Referent Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you
• Reference is a power derived from charisma or interpersonal attractiveness
Leadership and Vision:
Vision: is a clear sense of the future
Visionary Leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there
• brings meaning to people's work; it makes what they do seem worthy and valuable
Leadership as Service
Servant Leadership: is follower-centred and committed to helping others in their work
Empowerment: enables others to gain and use decision-making power
Effective leaders empower others by providing them with:
Information
Responsibility
Authority
Trust
LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND BEHAVIOURS
Leadership Traits:
• Drive
• Self confidence
• Creativity
• Cognitive ability
• Job relevant knowledge
• Motivation
• Flexibility
• Honesty and integrity
Leadership Behaviours
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Leadership Style: is the recurring pattern of behaviours exhibited by a leader
Two dimensions of leadership style:
1. concern for the task to be accomplished
2. concern for the people doing the work
A leader high in concern for the task plans and defines the work to be done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear
work standards, urges task completion, and monitors performance results
A leader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations
with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them
Classic Leadership Styles
Autocratic Style: acts in a unilateral command-and-control system
Human Relation Style: emphasizes people over tasks
Laissez-faire Style: displays a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude
Democratic Style: emphasizes both tasks and people
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
Fiedler’s Contingency Model:
Fred Fiedler: good leadership depends on a match between leadership style and situational demands
Understanding Leadership Style
Leadership style in Fiedler's model is measured on the least preferred co worker scale‐ ‐ (LPC)
describes tendencies to behave either as a task motivated leader (low LPC score) or as a relationship motivated
leader (high LPC score).
Understanding Leadership Situations
Three contingency variables are used to diagnose situational control:
1. Quality of leader–member relations (good or poor) measures the degree to which the group supports the lead-
er
2. Task structure: (high or low) measures how much task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out
3. Position power: (strong or weak) measures degree of how much power a leader has to reward and punish subordi-
nates
Matching Leadership Style and Situation
Proposition 1—a task oriented leader will be most successful in either very favourable (high control) or very un -
favourable (low control) situations
Proposition 2—a relationship oriented leader will be most successful in situations of moderate control
Hersy- Blanchard Situational Leadership Model:
In contrast to Fiedler's notion that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership model
suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles
They do so contingently and based on the maturity of followers, as indicated by their readiness to perform in a given sit-
uation
Possible combinations of task oriented and relationship oriented behaviors result in four leadership styles: ‐ ‐
2
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Document Summary

Leadership: is process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. Reward power: is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people: involves use of incentives: pay raises, bonuses, promotions, special assignments, verbal/written compliments. Coercive power: is the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people: manager may threaten him or her with verbal reprimands, pay penalties, or even termination. Legitimate power: is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office. Expert power: is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge. Referent power: is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you: reference is a power derived from charisma or interpersonal attractiveness. Vision: is a clear sense of the future.

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