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Lecture 2

SOSC-4002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Fernwood Publishing, Hijab, Feminist Theory

Social Sciences
Course Code
Lynne Milgram

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SOSC 4002: Gender and Social Change
2. Evolving Frameworks for Understanding Gender in
Globalizing Societies
Coburn, Elaine. 2005. Globalization and Women. IN Gendered Intersections: An
Introduction to Women and Gender Studies. C. L. Biggs and P. J. Downe, eds., pp. 393-
398. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing.
Gender relations, looking at class, race, nationalism and how we situate ourselves in colonialism,
nationalism in relation to globalization
Do we resist or collaborate with these barriers
Salem, Sara. 2018. Intersectionality and its discontents: Intersectionality as traveling
theory. European Journal of Women’s Studies 25(4): 403-418.
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 2005. Preface, Introduction, and Chapter 1. Pages ix-54. IN
Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton
University Press.
• Film: National Film Board of Canada. 1999. Beyond Borders: Arab Feminists Talk
About their Lives. (video). Montreal: NFB Production. (or [Un] Veiled: Muslim Women
Talk about Hijab]
Globalization: class response
Free flow of information, technology, people, goods - More direct way of interconnection
Plural, many forms; globalization works in many ways as we have to be geographical and culturally specific
Beginning of 2000 is singular but now it's plural as it's very different everywhere now
Singular: as one process but scholars now discuss on multi-perspectives
Sex and Gender
Interchangeable but they are different
Sex is biological and Gender is a social concept
Gendered Hierarchies
Coburn (&McNally): subordination of women generally emerged alongside the emergence of structures of
social and class inequality, private property, and the rise of capitalism
o How does women has less equality
o System of class differentiation develops, males develops kinship networks where they have social
advantages where women becomes disadvantage
o There is many societies where women have equal or more power compared to the western climate
o Largely rooted from capitalism in the Global North
Women bearing children with the pre-deposition of taking care of children as well as men's
biology built to hunt does not necessary mean anything
o Who in society seizes this power for themselves
These two articles talk about how they have many dispositions
o How is family life organized in disposition
o Always look historically and geographically
Discontinuities exist in the ways such domination and subordination develop historically and geographically
Hierarchies are grounded in difference in class, race, ethnicity as well as gender
o Any hierarchies based in society has factors that interact
Patriarchy: The systematic subordination of women and children to fathers and husbands
o Example in study of Afghanistan, many part of the world where men controls many part of daily life
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o A huge issues, looking at studies in latin America and Asian, patriarchy is a huge factor
In capitalist societies, women's oppression are traceable to boarder society values and to state regulation
(Eg. Wage difference, inequalities in infrastructure organization)
o Any position of women and men fit in state regular
Key factor of Sarah Salem raises - inequality is built in infrastructure;
o Example: medical books; due to the inequality, women's illness and bodies studies were behind and
cause disadvantages to women
o inequity with women and men is part of society's larger values. Things in our society paints tribute to
our oppression
o Our social structures is not natural, we can create them and destroy them
Key: Our social structures are not "natural"; rather we as a society construct the parameters of our social
o Not diverse enough, have to pass laws that change gender construct
o Tech sector is predominantly male and upper-class; canada is making laws that pushes for more
women in tech
o There is still a gender wage gap
o Looking at infrastructure and finding balance is an ongoing issues
o Gilds - men and women working together, they had more equality but with the rise of capitalist
practices where men have been privilege while women perform reproductive works. In latin and
Europe where there is this idea of men
For capitalism to thrive, women were used as soure of cheap labor in factories or to run households and
raise children for no pay, while emen worked outside the home to earn a salary
o In order for factory to run, women had to do domestic chores. Women were self exploited then
capitalism would thrive as women were not paired
Capitalism reinforce the special role of women as breeder and nurturers
o Expectation that women will stay home that's reinforce by capitalism
This ideology is strongly emphasize by the prevailing practice of capitalism - the expectation that women
should be both wage earner and keepers of the household
o Capitalism to strive, there has to have a bifurcation
Colonialism & the expansion of Capitalism
Coburn emphasize: The expansion of colonialism in the late 19th century and its policies systematically
disadvantages women in numerous ways:
1. Degradation of informal sector work
2. Rise of the sex trade catering to northern clients
3. Emergence of global sweatshops
4. Out-migration of women to find work
Thus, with the rise of capitalism & the concept of private property, women lost access to held power outside
the household
o Industrial revolution needed market, materials and cheap labour. Global North countries colonize
Global South countries with military, organized religion and such that took raw materials to serve
factor and look people for cheap labour
o Colonization ruined local economy, Global north where it's male centered
o Colonization is part of spread of capitalism
o Merchant capitalism - many trades (europeans, arabs, dutch..) going to coastal areas. Colonialization
isn't just picking up items and going home. Colonialization is where you take over resources
o Women work in domestic work that were seen as marginalized such as sex work (Phillipine and
Thailand), cleaning and such
o After getting independence, many global south countries that had skills like english were immigrating
to the global north
Neoliberal Globalization
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