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Lecture 1

ANAT 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cranial Cavity, Abdominopelvic Cavity, Pericardium


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Lecture
1

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ANAT 100 Module 1 Notes
Learning Outcomes
1. Locate and name the major body cavities, and investigate their relationships to each other
2. Apply defined terms used to describe and identify body sections, regions, planes, and the relative
location of body structures
3. Explain characteristics of epithelium and connective tissue and identify them at the microscopic
level
Section 1: The Importance of Anatomy
Definition of Anatomy
- Anatomy is the study of structure.
- The word anatomy is derived from Greek and means to ut apart
- I aato, the parts of a orgais are ut apart i order to asertai their positio, relatios,
structure and function.
- The four areas of anatomy include: (we will focus on 1, 2, and introduce 3)
1) Histology (microscopic features)
2) Gross anatomy (macroscopic features)
3) Neuroanatomy
4) Embryology
Fun Facts
- Smallest bone and muscle are found in your middle ear
- The average human brain weighs 3 pounds, a similar weight to the liver
- The stomach of a human adult can expand up to four times its size, holding nearly 2L
- From one end to the other, the human digestive tract measures over 29 feet long
- Your heart is roughly the size of your fist
- Humans can live with one lung (given limitations to physical activity)
Unity of Form and Function
- In anatomy, form and function are inextricably linked.
- The organization of a bodily structure is instrumental as it is the means by which a specific function
is carried out. This applies to all levels of organization, from small molecules and cells to organ
systems
- When a structure has proper form, it will have proper functioning. When the form is disrupted,
dysfunction may occur.
Section 2: Organization of the Human Body and Anatomical Nomenclature
Organization of the Human Body
- There are microscopic (small) and macroscopic (large) structures of the human body that can be
organized by fundamental levels, ranging from small molecules and cells to the organ system
- Chemical level: a molecule is a group of atoms bonded together
Molecule examples: sugar, water molecule, or a vitamin
Macromolecules are complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA molecules
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Organelles: complex, organized structures in the cytoplasm of a cell with uniqye
harateristi shapes; alled little orgas.
- Cellular level: Cells are the smallest living structure and are formed from atoms and molecules
- Tissue level: Tissues are similar cells that perform specialized functions
Four types of tissues: (1) epithelial tissue (covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities);
(2) connective tissue (protects, supports, and interconnects body parts and organs); (3)
muscle tissue (produces movement); and (4) nervous tissue (conducts impulses for internal
communication)
- Organ level: Organs are two or more tissues that work together to perform complex functions
Small intestine exhibits all four tissue types
- Organ system level: The organ system level consists of related organs that work together to
coordinate activities and achieve a common function
E.g.: organs of the respiratory system (nose, pharynx, and trachea) collaborate to clean,
warm, humidify, and conduct air from the atmosphere to the gas exchange surfaces in the
lungs
- Organismal level: All body systems function interdependently in a single living human.
Body Division
- Body can be organized into two main regions:
- (1) Axial: the axial forms the main vertical axis of the body, and includes the head, neck, and trunk.
- Appendicular: the appendicular regions includes the limbs or appendages that attach to the axis
Characteristics of Living Things
- Organization: all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order. As mentioned earlier in this
section, the human body has several increasingly complex levels of organization.
- Metabolism: All organisms carry out various chemical reactions, collectively termed metabolism.
These chemical reactions include breaking down ingested nutrients into digestible particles, using
the cells' own energy to perform certain functions, and contracting and relaxing muscles to move
the body. Metabolic activities such as ingesting nutrients and expelling wastes enable the body to
continue acquiring the energy needed for life's activities.
- Growth and Development: During their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their
environment and exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and
function (development). As the human body grows in size, structures such as the brain become
more complex and sophisticated.
- Responsiveness: All organisms sense and respond to changes in their internal or external
environment.
- Adaptation: Over a period of time, an organism may alter an anatomic structure, physiologic
process, or behavioral trait to increase its expected long-term reproductive success, such as a
darkening of skin pigmentation in the equatorial region due to an increase in sun exposure.
- Regulation: Control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism maintain a consistent internal
environment, a state called homeostasis
- Reproduction: All organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair. In addition, an
organism produces sex cells (called gametes) that, under the right conditions, have the ability to
develop into a new living organism
Organ Systems
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- At macroscopic levels, we can organize individual organs into organ systems based upon function
- Integumentary: Provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors,
synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss
Skin, hair, nails, sense receptors, sweat glands
- Skeletal System: Provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores
calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments
Bones, joints
- Muscular System: Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
- Nervous System: A regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli,
and helps control all other systems of the body. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, and
memory.
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
- Endocrine System: Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some of which
regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, and reproductive functions.
Pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas (islet
tissue)
- Digestive System: mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels
waste products
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anal canal,
accessory digestive organs
- Respiratory System: responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood
and the air in the lungs
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
- Cardiovascular System: Consists of the heart (a pump), blood, and blood vessels; the heart moves
blood through blood vessels to distribute hormones, nutrients, and gases, and pick up waste
products
- Lymphatic System: transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels)
and initiates an immune response when necessary
Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
- Urinary System: filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste
products in the form of urine, and expels urine from the body
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
- Reproductive System: (Male) produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone),
transfers sperm to the female. (Female) produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones
(estrogen and progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth
and development of embryo and fetus
Gonads, genital ducts, accessory organs, genitalia
Body Cavities
- The organ system are enclosed within distinct spaces, known as body cavities. These spaces are
important because they contain and protect our vital organs
- Dorsal: back of body
House and protection central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
Divides into two segments: cranial cavity (houses brain) and vertebral cavity (houses spinal
cord)
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