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Lecture 2

ANAT 100 Lecture 2: Anatomy- Module 2

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 100
Leslie W Mac Kenzie

Anatomy: Module 2 5/9/2017 6:11:00 PM Chapter 6: Cartilage and Bone Bone Primary component is bone connective tissue also called osseous Function of Bone • Support and Protection: Bones provide structural support and serve as a framework for the entire body. Also protect many delicate tissues and organs from injury and trauma. Examples of support: how the leg bones act as pillars and support the boduy and trunk, and how the ribs support the thoracic wall • Movement: Individual groups of bones serve as attachment sites for skeletal muscles, other soft tissues, and some organs. Bones of the skeleton function as levers that are pulled when skeletal muscles contract • Hemopoiesis: the process of blood cell production. Blood cells are produced in a connective tissue calls red bone marrow, which is located in some spongy bone. Red bone marrow contains stem cells that form all of the formed elements in the blood. *Inside the bone is a cavity called the marrow or medullary cavity that contains the blood forming tissue • Storage of Mineral and Energy Reserves: more than 90% of the body’s reserves of the minerals calcium and phosphate are stored and released by bone. In addition, potential energy in the form of lipids is stored in yellow bone marrow, which is located in the shafts of long bones Classification and Anatomy of Bones Each bone is composed of 2 layers: • Outer layer: made up of compact bone which is hard and strong • Inner layer: made up of spongy bone. *you can think of any type of bone as a sandwich of spongy bone, with compact bone on either side of spongy bone in the middle.  Organization of the Skeletal System 1. It is composed of bones, cartilages, joints, and ligaments 2. It accounts for approx. 20% of body mass 3. It includes 206 named bones 4. It is divided into two divisions- axial and appendicular skeletons o Axial Skeleton: forms the long axis of the body, consists of 80 bones ▪ Includes bones of the skull, vertebral column(spine), and thoracic cage(ribs and sternum) o Appendicular Skeleton: accounts for the remaining 126 bones in the skeleton. Includes bones of the limbs and the girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton There are four classes of bone as determined by shape: Long bones- these bones have an elongated, cylindrical shaft (diaphysis). This is the most common shape. Ie. bones in the upper limb and low limb, femur Short Bones- have a length nearly equal to their width. Ie. bones of the ankle and wrist Flat Bones- have flat, thin surfaces. Ie. bones of the skull Irregular bones- have elaborate, complex shapes. Ie. vertebrae General Structure and Gross Anatomy of Long Bones Structure of Long Bones -One of the principal gross features of a long bone is its shaft, or diaphysis -At each end of a long bone is an expanded, knobby region called the epiphysis -In adults, the remnant of the epiphyseal plate is a think layer of compact bone called the epiphyseal line -Metaphysis (region between the diaphysis and epiphysis).
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