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Lecture #4 - Joints.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #4 - Joints and Movement joint (articulation): any place where 2 bones meet -where movement occurs -structure determines type of movement -↑joint strength -> ↓ mobility -↓joint strength -> ↑ mobility Classification of Joints • classified by structure/function Fibrous Joints • Syndesmoses (DES not MOve) • joined by connective tissue • ex. skull (sutures in head, join skull bones together -> extremely stable) ex. joint connecting radius and ulna • Cartilagenous Joints • allow for movement, but not a lot • joined by connective tissue • hyaline: joins bones together, allow for more movement (ex. joints connecting ribs to sternum) • fibrocartilage: joins bones together, allow for less movement (ex. pelvis) Synovial Joints • most mobile kind • all have: -hyaline cartilage over articular surface of bones -synovial membrane with fluid-filled space -fibrous capsule covering whole joint (for stabilization) surrounded by fibrous tissue • • ends of bones are covered by cartilage that prevents bone-to-bone contact • also have: -ligaments for stability and to restrict movement -discs to absorb shock, facilitate easier movement Osteoarthritis • bone ends rub together Lecture #4 - Joints and Movement • cartilage erodes and causes friction • pain during movement of joint bone will attempt to heal -> forms spurs that restrict movement • Uniaxial Joints 1) Hinge Joint -angular motion -ex. elbow 2) Pivot Joint -rotation about axis -ex. atlanto-axial joint (neck) Biaxial Joints “gliding” of 2 surfaces against each other • • ex. Manubrio-clavicular joint, joints between carpal/tarsal bones Multi-axial Joints • Ball and Socket Joint -most mobile joint, least stable joint -easily damaged -ex. shoulder, hips • Plane Joint -usually small, between 2 surfaces -
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