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Lecture #6 - Bone Tissue.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #6 - Bone Tissue Skeletal System 5 functions 1) Support -for entire body -bones provide attachments for soft tissues and organs 2) Storage -reserves in bones for calcium salts for body fluids -bones store lipids as energy reserves in areas filled with yellow marrow 3) Blood cell production -occurs in red marrow -results in increases in red and white blood cells, and platelets (blood clot format.) 4) Protection -protect soft tissues and organs -ex. ribs protect heart and lungs, skull encloses brain 5) Movement -function as levers -muscles pull on bones -> movement occurs Bones (206) bones (osseous tissue): supporting connective tissue -contains matrix(collagen, calcium) made of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance -calcium phosphate/Ca (PO ) accounts for 2/3 of bone weight (deposited in matrix) 3 4 2 General Shapes of Bones 1) Long Bones -ex. humerus 2) Short Bones -ex. carpals 3) Flat Bones -ex. scapula 4) Irregular Bones -ex. vertebra LONG BONE • diaphysis (central shaft) -has marrow cavity filled with bone marrow • epiphyses (wider portions at each end) Lecture #6 - Bone Tissue -covered with articular cartilage • 2 types of bone tissue 1) compact bone -densely packed, forms diaphysis 2) spongy bone/cancellous bone -has projections of bone separated by space • periosteum -outer surface of bone • endosteum -layer lining the inside of bone -covers spongy bone (of marrow cavity) and other inner surfaces Histology of Bone • periosteum has 2 layers -fibrous outer layer -cellular inner layer • osteocytes: bone cells -located in lacunae (small pockets formed between lamellae, narrow sheets of matrix) • canaliculi: small channels that run through the matrix -connect lacunae and blood vessels (how osteocytes get their nutrients!) Compact Bone osteon: basic functional unit/Haversion system • -made of concentric circles of lamella around a central canal (contains blood vessels) • perforating canals: allow blood vessels in central canals to be linked to circulatory system • covers all bone surfaces except for articular surfaces • can tolerate a lot of stress applied to either end of long bone -cannot tolerate moderate stress applied to shaft Lecture #6 - Bone Tissue Histology of Spongy Bone • does not have osteons -lamellae form rods called trabeculae • found in epiphyses -where stress is handled by joints • much lighter than compact bone -> reduce work of muscles to move bones Types of Bone Cells • osteocytes: mature cells that maintain bone structure by recycling calcium salts -start as osteoblasts • osteoclasts: large cells
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