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Lecture #1 Notes - Introduction.doc

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Queen's University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Anatomy Lecture #1 anatomy: study of the structure (internal/external) of the body and the relationship of its parts • gross/macroscopic anatomy: visible with unaided eye -regional anatomy: superficial and internal features (ex. head, neck, trunk) -systemic anatomy: major organ systems (ex. heart, blood, blood vessels) • microscopic anatomy: cannot be seen without magnification -cytology: analyzes internal structure of individual cells -histology: broader perspective, examines tissues, groups of cells • developmental anatomy: structural changes from fertilization -fertilization -embryology Tools of Anatomy • x-rays • 2D-computed axial tomography (CAT scan) 3D-dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR) • • nonionizing radiation • nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR or MRI) • ultrasonography light microscopes of all types (along with stains and specific probes) • • transmission electron microscopy (“ ”) • scanning electron microscopy (“ ”) Basic Structural Levels 1) Cells 2) Tissues - arise embryologically (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) Anatomy Lecture #1 - give rise to 4 types of tissue 1) epithelial (ex. epidermis) 2) muscular (ex. skeletal, cardiac, visceral) 3) nervous (ex. neurons) 4) connective (ex. bones & cartilage, tendons & ligaments, blood cells) 3) Organs - when 2 /more tissue types combine for a particular function 4) Systems - organs that function cooperatively Anatomy Terminology 1) Anatomical Position 2) Regional Terms 3) Directional Terms 4) Body Planes Anatomy Lecture #1 5) Body Cavities 6) Membranes of Body Cavities (Parietal vs. bb visceral) *Anatomical Position* • body erect, feet together • upper limbs at side, palms facing forward (supinated) • fingers exte
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