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Lecture #9 - Muscle Tissue.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #9 - Muscle Tissue 3 Types of Muscle Tissue 1) Skeletal muscle tissue -large body muscles, for movement -long, cylindrical, striated, multinucleate (nuclei are pushed to the side) -voluntary 2) Cardiac muscle tissue -found only in heart -short, branched, striated, usually single nucleus (nuclei in centre) -involuntary 3) Smooth muscle tissue -found in walls of blood vessels -around hollow organs (ex. urinary bladder) -around respiratory, digestive, reproductive tracts -short, spindle-shaped, nonstriated, single, central nucleus -voluntary 5 Functions of Skeletal Muscles 1) Produce movement of skeleton -pull on tendons that move bones 2) Maintain posture and body position 3) Support soft tissues -with muscles of abdominal wall and pelvic floor 4) Guard entrances and exits -in the form of sphincters 5) Maintain body temperature -when contraction occurs, energy is used and converted to hear Organization of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscles contain -connective tissue Lecture #9 - Muscle Tissue -blood vessels -nerves -skeletal muscle tissue Single skeletal muscle cells (aka skeletal muscle fibers) 3 Layers of Connective Tissue 1) Epimysium -covers entire muscle 2) Perimysium -divides muscle into bundles called fascicles -contain blood vessels and nerves 3) Endomysium -covers each muscle fiber, ties fibers together -contains capillaries and nerves The Sarcolemma and Transverse Tubules sarcolemma: muscle fibre plasma membrane -has openings across surface that lead into network of transverse tubules (t tubules) -t tubules: allow for electrical stimuli to reach deep into each fiber sarcoplasm: muscle fiber cytoplasm Lecture #9 - Muscle Tissue Myofibrils in Muscle Fiber • hundreds to thousands in each fiber • encircled by T tubules and are as long as the entire muscle fiber • bundles of thick and thin myofilaments -actin molecules are found in thin filaments -myosin molecules are found in thick filaments • are contractile proteins that shorten and are responsible for contrac
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