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Lecture #14 - Blood Vessels.doc

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Queen's University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #14 - Blood Vessels CIRCULATION • blood vessels carry blood to all regions of the body • pulmonary circulation (blood to and from the lungs) -heart (RV) -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> heart (LA) • systemic circulation (blood to and from the tissues) -heart (LV) -> systemic arteries -> tissues -> systemic veins -> heart (RA) CAPILLARIES • smallest vessels between arteries and veins (allow exchange of nutrients, gas, waste products between blood and tissues) • receive blood from arterioles (smallest arteries) and empty blood into venules (smallest veins) STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS Lecture #14 - Blood Vessels • arteries and veins usually found together, wrapped in connective tissue • 3 distinct layers (tunics) -tunica intima (interna): inner lining of endothelium (simple squamous) with underlying connective tissue containing elastic fibres -tunica media: mainly smooth muscle with collagen and elastic fibres -tunica externa (adventitia): mainly connective tissue • as arteries get smaller, walls get thinner • capillaries have the thinnest wall for exchange as veins get larger, walls get thicker • -larger veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood MAJOR ARTERIES OF THE BODY • aorta: ascending (from LV), arch, descending (thoracic and abdominal) -thorax -coronary Lecture #14 - Blood Vessels -brachiocephalic (>R. common carotid & R. subclavian) -L. common carotid -L. subclavian -intercostals -abdomen -celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric (unpaired branches to GI tract) -suprarenal (suprarenal glands), renal (kidneys), gonadal (ovarian/testicular) -common iliac (terminal branches: internal and external iliac) -pelvis -internal iliac -head -common, external, and internal carotids, vertebral -upper limb arteries -subclavian, a
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