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Lecture #17 - Respiratory System.doc

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Queen's University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #17 - Respiratory System LUNGS • Right Lung -3 lobes Horizontal Fissure -> superior, middle, inferior S -2 fissures -> horizontal, oblique Oblique Fissure • Left Lung Cardiac Notch S -2 lobes M -> superior, inferior -1 fissure -oblique Oblique Fissure I -cardiac notch I *heart is on left side -> left lung is smaller *cardiac notch is where the heart sits Hilium Apex Apex Base Lecture #17 - Respiratory System PLEURAL CAVITIES • lung surrounded by a serous membrane - pleura • parietal layer - outside layer, doesn’t touch lung • visceral layer - touches lung • pleural cavity • pleural fluid -small amounts from both layers -reduces friction PNEUMOTHORAX • collapsed lung • accumulation of air in pleural cavity • pressure around lung (cannot expand) • symptoms: chest pain, labored breathing • treatment (depends on severity) - wait for absorption, insertion of tube to remove air *recall* Conduction system • nasal/oral cavity Lecture #17 - Respiratory System • pharynx • larynx trachea • • bronchi (1, 2, 3) • large bronchioles Respiratory system small bronchioles • • alveoli SMALL BRONCHIOLES • terminal bronchioles no cartilage • • smooth muscle -constriction -dilation -involuntary • branch into respiratory bronchioles -give rise to alveolar sacs & alveoli asthma -involves bronchioles -several triggers -> exercise, smoking -smooth muscle spasms - bronchoconstriction -wheezing, coughing, labored breathing -salbutimol -> relaxes smooth muscles, bronchodilation *alveoli = grapes *alveoluc = bunch of grapes ALVEOLI • respiratory bronchioles lead into alveolar ducts • alveolar ducts lead to alveolar sacs made up of alveoli (bunches of grapes) thin walls for gas exchange • • capillaries between alveoli • large surface area ~ size of tennis court Lecture #17 - Respiratory System pneumocyte type I -epithelial cells -unusually thin pneumocyte type II -produce surfactant -reduce surface tension -keeps alveoli open alveolar macrophages -eliminates foreign substances Branch of Pulmonary Artery Type to enter text Lecture #17 - Respiratory System Branch of Pulmonary Artery
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