ANAT 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Intervertebral Foramina, Aorta, Synovial Joint

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ANATOMY 215
VERTEBRAL COLUMN, THORACIC and ABDOMINAL WALLS
(Reading Materials: Chapter 6: pages 164-176; Chapter 8: pages 220-222; Chapter 10:
pages 281-284; Chapter 22: pages 587, 593, 595)
Vertebral column (spine):
general characteristics:
26 bones:
vertebrae (24)
sacrum (1)
coccyx (1)
approximately 70 cm long in average adult
consists of five regions:
cervical (7 vertebrae)
thoracic (12 vertebrae)
lumbar (5 vertebrae)
sacral
coccygeal
spinal curvatures:
primary: forms in uterus CONCAVE ANTERIORLY
thoracic
sacral
secondary: forms after birth CONCAVE POSTERIORLY
cervical
lumbar
vertebral structure: (Common structural pattern)
body (anterior)
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vertebral arch (posterior):
pedicles- contact with body, notches from superior/inferior
laminae- posterior portion of arch
spinous process- meeting of 2 laminae
transverse process- where lamina and pedicle meet (horizontal)
articular processes:
superior and inferior- go in opposite directions, specialized surfaces
articular facets
vertebral foramen (canal)- body and vertebral arch
intervertebral foramina- space, spinal nerves pass through opening
regional vertebral characteristics:
cervical vertebrae:
C1-C7
C1 and C2 are atypical:
atlas (C1)- ring of bone with 2 large articular surfaces, skull makes contact with occipital
condyles
axis (C2)- knob/ bony projection= dens, odontoid process, pivot point for atlas to move
L↔R “no”
C3-C7 are typical:
oval body
bifid spinous processes (except C7)- split spinous process, C3-C6
large triangular vertebral foramen
transverse foramen- hole in transverse process, major blood vessels- on side of neck,
supply brain
C7 is the vertebral prominens- bump on neck
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thoracic vertebrae:
T1-T12
articulation with ribs:
facets and demifacets
heart shaped body- articulating facets for the ribs
facet orientation between vertebral arches is coronal
circular vertebral foramen
long spinous process that points downward
lumbar vertebrae:
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