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Lecture 13

Lecture 13-VErtebral Column, Thoracic and Abdominal Walls.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 215
Leslie W Mac Kenzie

ANATOMY 215 VERTEBRAL COLUMN, THORACIC and ABDOMINAL WALLS (Reading Materials: Chapter 6: pages 164-176; Chapter 8: pages 220-222; Chapter 10: pages 281-284; Chapter 22: pages 587, 593, 595) • Vertebral column (spine): • general characteristics: • 26 bones: • vertebrae (24) • sacrum (1) • coccyx (1) • approximately 70 cm long in average adult • consists of five regions: • cervical (7 vertebrae) • thoracic (12 vertebrae) • lumbar (5 vertebrae) • sacral • coccygeal • spinal curvatures: • primary: forms in uterus CONCAVE ANTERIORLY • thoracic • sacral • secondary: forms after birth CONCAVE POSTERIORLY • cervical • lumbar • vertebral structure: (Common structural pattern) • body (anterior) • vertebral arch (posterior): • pedicles- contact with body, notches from superior/inferior • laminae- posterior portion of arch • spinous process- meeting of 2 laminae • transverse process- where lamina and pedicle meet (horizontal) • articular processes: • superior and inferior- go in opposite directions, specialized surfaces • articular facets • vertebral foramen (canal)- body and vertebral arch • intervertebral foramina- space, spinal nerves pass through opening • regional vertebral characteristics: • cervical vertebrae: • C1-C7 • C1 and C2 are atypical: • atlas (C1)- ring of bone with 2 large articular surfaces, skull makes contact with occipital condyles • axis (C2)- knob/ bony projection= dens, odontoid process, pivot point for atlas to move L↔R “no” • C3-C7 are typical: • oval body • bifid spinous processes (except C7)- split spinous process, C3-C6 • large triangular vertebral foramen • transverse foramen- hole in transverse process, major blood vessels- on side of neck, supply brain • C7 is the vertebral prominens- bump on neck • thoracic vertebrae: • T1-T12 • articulation with ribs: • facets and demifacets • heart shaped body- articulating facets for the ribs • facet orientation between vertebral arches is coronal • circular vertebral foramen • long spinous process that points downward • lumbar vertebrae: • L1-L5 • massive kidney shaped body • short, thick pedicles and laminae • short, flat hatchet shaped spinous processes • triangular vertebral foramen • facet orientation between vertebral arches in sagittal plane • sacrum: • fusion of five vertebrae • apex • base • sacral promontory- ridge • sacral foramina- holes for nerves • sacral canal- spinal cord + nerves
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