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Lecture 15

Lecture 15- Upper Limb continued.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 215
Leslie W Mac Kenzie

ANATOMY 215 UPPER LIMB (cont’d) (Reading Materials: Chapter 11: pages 291-305, 324-327; Chapter 22: pages 582-583, 595- 596) Note: To understand the primary function of a muscle you need to understand where the muscle is coming from (origin) and where it is going to (insertion). Muscles that attach the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton (these muscles also move the scapula): • extrinsic shoulder muscles: • anterior: • pectoralis minor- o= ribs 3,4,5, I= coracoid process of scapula, contracts- scapula pulled down and forward, medial pectoral nerve • serratus anterior- serrated o= upper 8 ribs, pass laterally and backward, hugs rib cage, I= anterior surface of medial border of scapula, contracts- scapula protracts, long thoracic nerve • posterior: • trapezius- low fibres contract- depress shoulders, top fibeth contract- elevates scapula, middle contract- retract scapula, huge muscle, o= occipital bone of skull to 12 thoracic vertebrae, I= (upper) acromion + clavicle (middle) spine of scapula (lower) spine of scapula, accessory nerve • rhomboid major and minor- deep to trapezius, dorsal scapular nerve Major= upper thoracic vertebrae to medial border of scapula below spine Minor= C7-T1 to middle of medial border Contract- shoulder blade elevated + retracted = antagonistic to serratus anterior • levator scapulae- cervical vertebrae to medial border of scapula above spine, elevates scapula, cervical and dorsal scapular nerves • Muscles that attach the axial skeleton to the arm (humerus): • anterior: • pectoralis major- “big chest muscle”, o= clavicle, costal cartilages, sternum I= lateral side of bicepital groove, contract- adduct arm, medial rotation, (upper muscles) flexion, (bottom fibres) extension, pectoral nerves • posterior: • latissimus dorsi- (back to front), o= pelvic girdle, lumbar vertebrae, lower thoracic vertebrae, lower 3-4 ribs, I= bicepital groove, extends arm, mediallyrotate, adduction, thoracodorsal nerve • Muscles that attach the pectoral girdle to the humerus: • deltoid- large, triangular shaped, forms roundness of shoulder, o= acromion + clavicle + spine of scapula, I= deltoid tuberosity (v-shaped roughening on humerus), (front fibres) abduction, flexion, medial rotation, (back fibres) extension, lateral rotataion, axillarynerve • teres major- o= lower lateral border of scapula, I= bicepital groove (moves posterior to front), mediallyrotate, extension, adduction, lower subscapular nerve • subscapularis*- o= anterior surface of scapula, I= lesser tubercle, medial rotation, adduction, supbscapular nerve • supraspinatus*- small, thick, powerful, o= supraspinous fossa, I= greater tubercle (crosses over top of shoulder), suprascapular nerve • infraspinatus*- o= infraspinous fossa, I= greater tubercle (crosses behind shoulder), suprascapular nerve • teres minor*- o= same at teres major, lower lateral border of scapula, I= greater tubercle, lateral rotation, axillary nerve • * represent the rotator cuff muscles Muscles that move the forearm: (associated with arm) • anterior (flexor) compartment: (musculocutaneous nerve) • coracobrachialis (oddity?)- o= coracoid process of scapula, I= ½ down medial side of humerus, flex, ad
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