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Lecture 18

Lecture 18- Lower Limb contd.doc

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 215
Leslie W Mac Kenzie

ANATOMY 215 LOWER LIMB (cont’d) (Reading Materials: Chapter 11: pages 308-321, 327-328; Chapter 22: pages 589-591, 597-598) Note: To understand the primary function a muscle you need to know where the muscle comes from (origin) and where it is going to (insertion). • Muscles that move the thigh (gluteal region): (cross hip joint) (inferior/superior gluteal nerve, from sacral plexus L5-S5) • posterior: • gluteal maximus- largest, heaviest, cross backside at 45° angle, o= external surface of ilium, sacrum + coccyx, I= gluteal tuberosity (on femur), band of tissue on lateral side of femur- ilialtibial tract (iliac crest, lateral thigh, lateral tibia), extension, lateral rotation, inferior gluteal nerve • gluteal medius- fan/triangle shape, deep to maximus, o= upper/middle ilium, I= greater trochanter of femur, contract- abduct, medially rotate, superior gluteal nerve • gluteal minimus- deep to medius, o= lower limb, I= greater trochanter, abduction, medial rotation, superior gluteal nerve • tensor fasciae latae- o= anterior superior iliac spine, I= iliotibial tract, oddity because not lateral, nor posterior, superior gluteal nerve • anterior: (nerve?) • iliopsoas: •a) psoas major- long, thick, powerful, o= T12-L5, I= lesser trochanter, INNERVATION? • b) iliacus- lateral to psoas major, o= anterior surface of ilium, I= lesser trochanter, INNERVATION? •Tendons blend in, contract- powerful flexors of thigh at hip joint • Compartments of the thigh: (move leg at knee joint) • anterior (extend leg @ knee) , posterior (flex leg @ knee, extend thigh @ hip) , medial (adduct thigh) • anterior (extensors of the knee thus they move the leg): (all femoral nerve, from lumbar plexus L1-L5) • Sartorius- “crossing leg muscle”, long, narrow, strap-like, 2-joint muscle because crosses hip AND knee, o= anterior superior iliac spine, crosses anterior of thigh, medial side of knee, I= upper medial surface of tibia, contract- flex leg at knee, flex thigh at hip, laterally rotate thigh at hip • quadriceps femoris: (all insert on patella) •a) rectus femoris- straight, superficial, o= anterior inferior iliac spine, I= patella, extend leg at knee, flex thigh at hip= “kicking muscle” •b) vastus medialis- o= linea aspera of femur, I= patella • c) vastus lateralis- o= linea aspera + greater trochanter (posterior surface of femur) • d) vastus intermedius- o= anterior surface of femur, I= tibia All wrap around femur, fibers of medialis and lateralis converge and insert on tibia • patellar tendon • posterior (hamstrings which function to extend the thigh and flex the knee): (all o= iscial tuberosity) (all sciatic nerve, from sacral plexus L5-S5) •biceps femoris- (2 heads) o= (long head) iscial tuberosity (short head) linea aspera, crosses hip and knee joint, heads join to form belly, I= head of fibula • semitendinosus- I= medial side of tibia, prominent tendon • semimembranosus- behind/deep to semitendinosus, wider, thinner belly, will have indentation along belly •Both flex leg @ knee, extend thigh @ hip, medially rotate thigh @ hip • medial (adductors of the thigh): all o= pubic bone, most I= linea apera (obturator or femoral nerve, from lumbar plexus L1-L5) •(SUPERFICIAL) gracilis- long, narrow, strap-like, crosses knee joint (medial border of thigh), I= upper medial surface of tibia, adduct, medial rotation, movement of leg at knee, obturator nerve • (SUPERFICIAL) pectineus- I= back of femur below lesser trochanter, adduct, flex thigh at hip, femoral nerve •(SUPERFICIAL) adductor longus- I= linea aspera (just below pectineus), adduct, obturator nerve •(POSTERIOR) adductor brevis- I= adductor tubricle of medial epicondyle, adduct thigh at hip, obturator nerve?? • (POSTERIOR) adductor magnus- I= linea
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