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lecture_26_27_central_nervous_system_brain_2012.doc

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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course
ANAT 215
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Semester
Fall

Description
ANATOMY 215 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: BRAIN (Reading material: Chapter 16: pages 406-428; Chapter 22: pages 585-586,594) • Brain: • cerebrum and brain stem • Cerebrum: • telencephalon (outer brain) – 80% of mass of entire mass • diencephalon (inter brain) • Telencephalon: • cerebral hemispheres • longitudinal cerebral fissure • cerebral cortex • gyri (us=singular): means twisters and bumps – elevated surface • precentral gyrus (motor cortex) • postcentral gyrus (sensory cortex) • sulci (us=singular): furrows – separate gyri from each other • central sulcus – starts at top middle of each hemisphere, extends downward at an angle, stopping just short of the lateral sulcus; separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe - bordering the central sulcus are the postcentral (sensory) and precentral cortex (motor) • parieto-occipital sulcus – can’t see much if cerebrum is intact; best seen on medial surface of each hemisphere; (at back of cerebrum); intact cerebrum- look for preoccipital notch, and small portions of sulcus, connect the two and this is where the parietal and occipital lobe are separate, than go to lateral sulcus and connect the end of the lateral sulcus at a 90* angle to the parieo-occipital line and this gives the boundary of the temporal lobe below • lateral sulcus – prominent on the side of the cerebrum • lobes: • frontal • parietal • occipital • temporal – thumb of the boxing glove • insula – pull apart temporal from parietal and frontal lobe above to find this hidden lobe • gray matter: • cerebral cortex – made up of cell bodies, on the periphery • neuron cell bodies – doesn’t seem like there are a lot of cell bodies, but actuallythe gyri increase the surface area of the cerebrum 3 fold, so the gray matter makes up 40% of the mass of the brain • basal ganglia: • deep gray matter , nerve cell bodies • made up of caudate and lentiform nucleus – function in control of motor activities • Ganglia are supposed to only be in the PNS, BUT think about the definition of a ganglia…??? • white matter: • myelinated nerve fibers (axons) • 2 communication tracts of fibers: • corpus callosum (horizontal fibers) – means thick body, find it deep to the longitudinal cerebral fissure, about 1cm thick, connecting corresponding areas of one hemisphere to the other hemisphere, extends from frontal to parietal to occipital, seems to stop at occipital but it sends fibers called forceps that get into the occipital lobe • internal capsule ( vertical projection fibers) – one on each hemisphere, when these fibers get in between the components of the basal ganglia they get concentrate into a narrow band and this is what we call the internal capsule, the internal capsule provides a landmark for the internal topography of the cerebral hemispheres • Diencephalon: - central core of the cerebrum, centre of the base of the cerebrum 1. thalamus (sensory relay to cortex) – interfalamic adhesion connects the thamlamus between the 2 hemispheres; 80% of diencephalon; relay center for our senses (except smell); senses go to thalamus and it directs them to the appropriate parts of the cortex 2. hypothalamus (connection to pituitary gland) – function is the king pin in controlling our endocrine system 3. epithalamus (connection to pineal gland which is responsible for melatonin production) – melatonin is responsible for our circadian rhythm rd • encloses the 3 ventricle – the three structure forms the walls of this enclosure • Brain Stem: • midbrain (mesencephalon): • cerebral peduncles – two massive bundles of fibers, pillars holding up that portion of the cerebrum • superior colliculi(visual reflex coordinating head and eye movement) – 2 bumps • inferior colliculi (auditory reflex) – 2 bumps • pons: • 4 ventricle- cavity on the posterior surface - basilar groove – shallow groove on anterior surface - cranial nerve 5 • transverse fiber tracts linked to the cerebellum (middle cerebellar peduncle) – bugles on the lateral sides of the pon • medulla oblongata: • pyramids – immediatelyanterior to fissure • olives • vital reflex centers: • cardiovascular center • respiratory center •
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