Slide Test 4,ARTH120
1. Labrouste. Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve. Paris. 1800s.
• Renaissance exterior is juxtaposed by the modern cast iron interior, which allows two
large barrel vaults.
• The exterior was inspired by Jacopo Sansovino’s Library of San March (1536) and the
Medici Bank of Milan (ca. 1460).
• The thin, delicate ironwork is reminiscent of Gothic architecture, although it
incorporates Classical elements, like Ionic columns and roundels. It is also supposed to
remind the visitor of trend sheds and thus, of travel.
• The artist did not necessarily need to use iron, but chose so in order to stress its
technological function and use it is a symbol of modernity; it may also be argued that
the attenuated iron supports allow for more light in the reading room
• We see illustrated in the stone and iron forms the different amounts of material needed
to perform the same structural work; iron has more tensile and compressive strength
than stone, and therefore its structural forms can be more slender and attenuated than
2. Boileau and Boileau, architects, Eiffel, engineer. Bon Marche, Paris. 1800s
3. Monet. Gare Saint Lazare, 1800s (the version in Janson).
- Medium: Oil on Canvas
- 1 of 10 paintings of this same scene at different times of day painted by Monet
- This painting relates to the advent of the industrial revolution in France, illustrated by
the steam trains, the iron structure, the working class people, etc.
- However, the light colors and thick brushwork romanticize the industrial movement.
- Impressionism movement was linked to a larger cultural interest in vision, in seeing the
changes to the world, in seeing others and allowing others to see us. The cultural
phenomenon of vision is linked to ideas of modern social performance (all are performers
and viewers) but also to Positivism, a theory of knowledge with scientific grounding,
calling for the observation and collection of facts
-The loose brushwork hints at movement, and of the transience of less permanent parts
of the composition, like the steam rising from the engines. This perhaps also reflects the
large amounts of change characteristics of modernity.
4. Manet. The Railway. 1800s.
- Medium: Oil on Canvas
- The thick smog emerging from the locomotive, iron bars, and leisure time experienced
by bourgeoisie changes from the industrial movement.
- Flaneurism – the act of going out, “seeing and being seen” by other people.
5. Degas. The Orchestra at the Opera. 1800s.
• Done in oil medium on a canvas • Edgar Degas is considered to be one of the major representatives of Impressionism, due to
his innovating composition and his perspective analysis of motion.
• Creates interesting cropping/perspective incorporating the viewer into the scene
• Depicts a night of ‘going out,’an opportunity available to the upper class which was
growing during this time of industrial success in France.
6. Manet. Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1800s.
• The painting was Manet’s last work
• It represents the bustling interior of one of the most prominent music halls and cabarets
of Paris. Shows the growing bourgeoisie of Europe and their activities during this era.
• Oil medium on a canvas
• Toys with the perspective of the viewer, who is likely the man depicted in the mirror.
7. Renoir. Luncheon of the Boating Party. 1800s.
- oil on canvas
- painted in the impressionist style, with bright colours, and modern subjects
- set in the restaurant fournaise
- renoir payed a lot of attention to the people and they way they're dressed. The social
status of each person can be told from their clothing and the hats they wear. There are lots
of members of the working class in this particular painting.
8. Courbet. The Stone Breakers. 1800s.
- oil on canvas
- Coubert was knows for his paintings of the lower class, in their brutal honesty (amoral
depiction) that didn't idealize their lives and pays a lot of attention to the detail of their
clothing, the dirt on their pants, their ripped
- the stone breakers is often though of as having a socialist piece of art though coubert
- Represent physical labour executed by the working class that was being taken for
granted after the boom of the industrial age. This is especially poignant because the two
men don’t have faces – they represent the whole working class, not two particular people.
9. Mackintosh. Willow Tea Rooms. Glasgow. c1900.
Influenced by theArt Nouveau andArts and Crafts movements, which Mackintosh
• Mackintosh draws parallels between nature and the interior by placing pastoral motifs
within this space. For example, patters on the door and walls resembles a willow tree.
This is meant to create a magical space, where visitors can withdraw from the outside
world in order to relax.
• Like department stores, tea rooms were places where women could feel comfortable in
public (as women at this time were associated with the domestic rather than public life).
10. Sullivan. Schlesinger and Meyer Store. Chicago. c1900.
• Early use of a curtain wall, which transfers tension to an underlying steel structure in
order to produce large buildings with thinner walls. Here, Sullivan uses the curtain wall
to produce a light and airy structure with a lot of glass.
• Sullivan coined the phrase “form follows function,” which reflects his interests in
architecture which relates to its use through symbolism.
• The ground floor is make of cast iron, and depictsArt Nouveau plant forms in order to
relate the architecture to broader ideas of nature and cosmos.
11. Muybridge. Trotting Occident. c1900.
- Muybridge was hired by Leland Stanford to take photographs of a horse running to see if
all four legs leave the ground, horse trainers and artists were curious about horse’s
running form for centuries- photos proved that all four legs leave the ground- helped
future artists to draw horses (example Degas)
-Used 12 cameras to take sequence photos- demonstrated dynamics and movement,
innovative and reflected the possibilities with technology of the new age. Muybridge
became really popular and expanded on producing locomotion series of animals/people
12. Thomas Edison. New Brooklyn to New York via Brooklyn Bridge. c. 1900.
- Dominated movie production- had to produce films that appealed to mass audience-
such as technological innovations (subways, skyscrapers, lights, battleships) and
-The movement of the train going through the trussed structure causes abstraction
-The fixed camera at the front makes it feel as if the viewer is riding the train-
engagement and escapism
13. Munch. The Scream. c 1900.
o Tempera and casein on cardboard
o German Expressionism - exploring psychological forces
Colour & brushstroke creates feeling of anxiety (not created through realism)
o Was inspired by a night where he was out with friends and they heard a scream
echoing through the forest. It reportedly represents chomesthesia.
14. Van Gogh. Starry Night. c 1900.
• Oil on canvas
• Conveys emotion, rather than reality, through the use of colour and brushstroke. There is
lots of attention to the movement of the landscape and wind, evoked through the brush
strokes as well.
• The cypress tree in the foreground symbolizes life
• Painted after he moved to the asylum in Saint-Remy de Provence – this is a view from one
of his windows. 15. Vuillard. The Suitor. c1900.
16. Rousseau. the Dream. c1900.
• Rousseau uses symbolism to depict human desire and sexual urges. The nude is a
subject of voyeurism at the hands of both the animals surrounding her, and the viewer.
• The orange snake and flute are phallic, and represent male desire, which is a major
theme in symbolist art, due to the influence of psychoanalysts like Sigmund Freud.
• The mysteriousness of the painting is meant to reflect the oddness of dreams. The
viewer must try to figure out whose dream this is, and what it reveals about that
• An example of the Symbolist movement, using visible, recognizable forms to
symbolize that which cannot be seen (feelings, the unconscious, imagination).
Symbolists artists are working much like the brain when it constructs our dreams, using
figural elements to symbolize our unconscious (the id).
17. Kokoschka. The Bride of the Wind. 1910s.
- His portraits were considered “black portraits” and he became known as “the Freud of
painting” who “paints the first of one’s soul.”
- The Bride of the Wind is a self-portrait with his loverAlma Mahler, she is beautiful and
- This painting reflects the artist’s distress, the anxiety is expressed through Kokoschka’s
violent brushstrokes and abstraction of the scene.
18. Kandinsky. Sketch I for "Composition VII." 1919s.
-Abstract play of colour and painted line