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Lecture 3

ARTH 120 Week 3.doc

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Art History
ARTH 120
Una D' Elia

- Amphora with meander pattern and funeral, ca. 750 BCE o Can read in ancient text the marvel of Greek paintings o We read of amazing realism, but none of these Greek paintings survive o Want to revive great ancient tradition, so we have to imagine the wall paintings o Vase painting that survived  Amphora refers to shape of vase  Made to go on women’s tomb  Holes on the bottom signify libations made on the woman’s tomb could drip from the amphora into the ground  Swelling curves – embodies form of a women  Painted in geometric style – mostly covered in geometric pattern  Lying in the center is the deceased woman and around her are mourners • Hire mourners to come and make a great show of grief • Arms are up towards head – tearing at their hair in dramatic and theatrical show of grief  Different kind of funerary art – not looking at art for the afterlife  as in Mesopotamia • Isn’t about passage to underworld, but it is about a funeral and social status, memory, and fame in this life o This is a key shift  Not starting from a point of crude art – exceptionally sophisticated object - Black-figured amphora; Exekias, Achilles, and Ajax playing Dice, ca. 540-530 BCE o Would hold wine, decorated in black-figured technique o Used black glaze on pottery, paint figures with this glaze o Story about great hero Achilles, Ajax – in a moment of repose before the battle  Armor and shields are put away  Concentration is shown visually by converging diagonals • Completely absorbed in the game • Game as a metaphor for warfare - Red-figured kylix (wine cup); Douris painter, Eos and Memnon, ca. 490- 480 BCE o Red terracotta of the pot showing for the figures o Eos, goddess of the Don, is mourning over dead son Memnon o Objects were a part of part of people’s life o Suggest ways in which tragedy was pleasurable – tragic and funny at the same time - Homosexuality and the Symposium o Because women were uneducated, it was thought by great writers of ancient Greece, you could not have a meeting of the minds, true intellectual interchange with a women o Most meaningful relationships were with men (older man and younger man just entering into puberty)  Mentor, philosophical, physical relationships  Platonic was something different than what it is considered now - Kouros, ca. 540-525 BCE; Kore, ca. 530 BCE (wearing a peplos) o A figure of a man and woman whose names are unknown o In funerary contexts o Female figures are clothed, male naked  Remind us of Egyptian statues, esp. male figure with two straight legs, one foot in front of the other, every muscle equally tensed, etc. (Menukare)  Naturalistic in a sense, with a stiff eternal image - Kouros, ca. 540-525 BCE; Kritios Boy, ca. 480 BCE (marble) o Latter is a much more assumed and casual pose (contrapposto)  Contrasting pose, one side of the body does something different than the other side  Slight shift makes an enormous difference  Art that seems like its capturing a moment/illusion, much more real and theatrical but not actually alive o Polychromy - Warrior, ca. 450 BCE, found in the sea off of Riace, Italy o Inset copper nipples, lips, curled teeth, shell & glass eyes o Before the bronze turned green, it would’ve had warm brown color o Vivid naturalism of statues - Pygmalion o Sculptor who hated women, badly treated by women o Decided they were all whores o Went to live as a hermit in the woods  Makes this statue of a woman and starts to think of her as perfect  This is a perfect, ideal woman unlike the stinking reality out there  Starts to fall in love with his own statue o Really wants the statue to come alive (“if only I could have a real woman, like the statue”)  Amazingly naturalistic images that seem to move, that we feel in our bodies a reaction to b/c they feel like us almost promise Pygmalion’s dream  Feel as if they would talk back, become warm and yielding under our touch, but we know its ultimately a dream - Zeus or Poseidon, ca. 460-450 BCE, bronze; kylix with a bronze foundry o Fascination of making figures alive – now with an active motion o Hollow statue is newly active – something you can do with bronze but not marble o Amazing technical achievement - Olympics; Roman copy after bronze original by Myron, Diskobolos, ca. 450 BC o Tree stone placed otherwise it couldn't hold its weight o Emphasis on athleticism since 8 century BCE o Women were excluded from being spectators – separate games held for them  Wore a short garment so they weren’t naked  Peaceful competition – emphasis on body as a central part of culture - Iktinos and Kalikrates, Parthenon; 447-432 BCE o Model of Pheidias, Athena Parthenos, ca. 438 BCE  Made of ivory and gold o Three goddesses, from the east pediment of Parthenon, ca. 438- 432 BCE  Birth of Athena from Zeus’s head (missing scene)  High up, monumental figures  Heads and projecting limbs lost  Hardly startled by birth of Athena – relaxed, voluptuous poses  Drapery clings to bodies, rounded forms underneath  Not stiff, eternal, frontal, symmetrical – opposed • Expanded, resting poses o Parthenon metopes and frieze  Frieze - o Lapith and centaur, metope from the Parthenon, ca. 440 BCE  Battles between human/lapith people and centaurs  Man and man’s bestial nature fighting each other in eternal struggle  Not like Egyptian tomb sculpture – like a staged drama like ancient Greek tragedy rather than something that could come alive o East frieze of the Parthenon, ca. 440 BCE  Annual ceremony performed in front of the temple 
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