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Lecture

2.1 ARTH 213, September 19th

4 Pages
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Department
Art History
Course Code
ARTH 214
Professor
Cathleen Hoeniger

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ARTH 213 Renaissance Art and Architecture th Wednesday, September 19 Duecento Art in Tuscany and Rome  Before Giotto  Slide tests are on the images we cover in class – they’re all in the textbook  Hartt/Wilkins, Chapter 2  13 century  Expansion of population, growth of cities increased the need for architecture  Two new monastic orders: Franciscans (followers of St. Francis) vs. Dominicans (associated with the founding of universities – the learned order, founded by St. Dominic) o Dominicans advocated what is ‘correct’ in Christianity  Associated with chasing heretics, the Inquisition, etc. o Franciscans were a mendicant order – they were impoverished, they sought charity to support the other  Took vows of poverty, and chastity  Wore simple garbs with a knotted rope around the waist o The orders grew quickly – needed new larger buildings to gather  Resulted in the construction of new civic cathedrals  3 major universities: Padua- medicine, Bologna- law, Paris- theology  Cathedral is the seat of the bishop th th  In the 13 and 14 centuries, the cities were in competition with each other to build bigger and better cathedrals  Monastic buildings and the cathedrals feature a combination of styles th Florence, Baptistery, 11 century.  White Carrara marble and dark green marble from Prato  Romanesque style – aspects of what they believed to be ancient design  Baptism occurred as a child – important stage in life, receiving a Christian name  Rounded arches (ancient style)  In the 14 century, people thought this was an ancient structure – they thought it was a temple to Mars  Coloured marble o The green is used to articulate the forms in a superficial way – it’s decorative, not structural (in ancient Rome, the arches would have all been structural) Interior of Siena Cathedral, completed early 1270s  Begun during the first half of thirteenth century  If possible the altar was at the east end (facing Jerusalem)  Everything funnels towards the altar  Large nave where the congregation sits (this was built first, then the façade would be added later)  Interior is Romanesque style  Piers with a central core and engaged wings support the nave  Big, thick, heavy walls and small windows  Rounded arches between the piers  Quite gloomy interior  Built at the time when Sienna was prospering – Sienna had its golden age before the Renaissance, in the 13 century Sienna Cathedral. Lower half of the façade by sculptor Giovanni Pisano. 1284-1299  Gothic style (French style)  Points and decorative sculptural work  Sculpture and Architecture are completely integrated here  Today many of the original statues have been taken to museums and replaced by copies for the sake of preservation  Many statues are set into niches  Many statues are meant to tell a dramatic story to the people looking up at them  Mary, Sister of Moses o Removed from original location of the façade o She looks out of her niche to look and communicate with her brother o Facial features are in great detail because we would have seen it from below o What she’s saying would be written on the scroll, but obviously we wouldn’t be able to read it from the ground o Influenced by the French Gothic style: elongated figure, with flowing drapery Pisa Baptistery, 9 -12 century th  Sculptural arcade on second story of exterior by Nicola Pisano, mid-13 century  Nicola Pisano is the father of Giovanni Pisano Nicola Pisano. Pisa Baptistery pulpit, 1260  The scene of the crucifixion faces outwards  It’s signed and dated  New that each side forms a de
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