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Lecture 9

ARTH 215 Lecture 9: Week 3 Lectures

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Art History
ARTH 215
Una D' Elia

January 24 Week 3 Lecture 1 Pope Julius II Pope Julius II - Rome was economically depressed - Low population - Lots of farm land - Elected by college of Cardinals - Hailed as a military ruler - Compared in visual to Julius Caesar - Wanted to be shown with a sword on his tomb o The coming together of having military ambitions and being a spiritual leader o Some complained about this dual contrasting role Donato Bramante (1444-1514) - Was in Milan with Leonardo before he came to Rome - Came to Rome at 54 - Architect - Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502-after 1511 o Tempietto means little church!!! o Commissioned by King and Queen of Spain – Ferdinand and Isabella ▪ F and I famous for being the architects of the new Spain, “Reconquista” o Round temples surrounded by columns were common in classical antiquity o Ancient domes would have been lower; this one is raised up on cylinder (drum) o Reconstructed ancient form in a way that was wrong ▪ Added extra story, taller, thinner ▪ Renaissance proportions o Tempietto drum and dome ▪ Drum raises up the dome ▪ Tall, high, elegant profile ▪ Doric columns • Simple, most masculine • Smooth columns - Tempietto, as illustrated as a model (among classical buildings), Serlio, 1545 Cortile del Belvedere, Rome construction began 1505 - Grand, controlled terraces showed mastery over landscape - Theatrical stage set for papal ceremonies - Actual theatre built here for performances as well as ramps staircases, and long views out over the landscape which showed the domination over nature and clearly, metaphorically Julius’s dominating power - Imperial monument made for grandiose spectacles Sanctuary of Fortuna Primengenia, 1 C BCE - Place to hold classical dramas - Military events and jousts January 24 - Vistas showing power Old Saint Peters (4 Century CE) - Rebuilding of the church of St Peters - Not completed within the 10 years of his reign - Problematic o Old was hallowed by tradition; the people who had stood there; the saints that had walked and touched the stones – building was a relic o Considered a scandal o Walls were caving in o Very small -- didn’t match his ambitions - Latin cross church - Built on Peter’s bones Plans for St. Peter’s, Rome (overlaid on the plan for old St. Peter’s), 1506 - Much bigger - High altar still needed to be in the center; over Peter’s bones Cardosso, Medal with Bramante’s Plan for Saint Peter’s, Rome 1506 - Plan for St. Peter’s - A monument to be seen from afar - Imposing grandeur of the church/Papacy as Rome reborn - Classical building with towers supporting giant domes risen up Basilica of Maxentius, 307-312 CE - Massive buildings Interior of St. Peter’s Rome, begun by Bramante 1506 - Sheer sense of scale - Gigantic arches still visible Raphael (1483-1520) - Very famous 16 -19 C th Self Portrait, oil on panel, ca. 1505 - Called less inventive than Leonard and Michelangelo - Easy, graceful, witty, urbane Madonna of the Meadows, oil on panel 1505 - Early in his career - Pre-Rome  Comparison: Leonardo Madonna on the Rocks - Similarities o Poses of St. John the Baptist o Inclination of Virgin’s head o Softness January 24 o Twisting forms within a landscape o Imitation as a form of flattery? - Differences o Imitation as a form of criticism o Raphael sought to outdo Leonardo o Clearer, softer, brighter, larger o Domestic countryside o Greater monumentality and breadth o Take up space and dominate over the landscape - Leonardo later copied Raphael to work towards an even greater monumentality (Madonna’s foot) Stanza della Segnatura - Pope Julius’s private library - Later used for the signing of official documents - Small room  Raphael, School of Athens, fresco, 1510-11 - Title given in 18 century - Better title: philosophy o One of the subjects of knowledge - Pythagoras o Kneeling on floor o Demonstrating as old and young crowd o Animated sense of teaching/learning/passing on knowledge - Euclid o Features of Bramante o Arm down and around towards the floor o Grand gesture to make the demonstration - Most figures planned out - Overlapping forms in plaster; can see how some were added in the end - Michelangelo as Heraclitus  Raphael, Dispute, fresco, 1510-11 - Christ in the clouds flanked by the saints - Below on Earth: an altar, consecrated host (wafer), theologians of all ages around o Discussing the nature of mass and the communion wafer o How does the wafer become the body of Christ? One of the biggest mysteries of the church - Figures turn to each other in g
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