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ARTH 375 Jan 29 2013.docx

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Art History
ARTH 375
Ron Spronk Allcorrect

Jan 29, 2012 -Jan Van Eyck> “King of Painters” -reputation big early on> 16th centurt called king of painters -born around 1390 (?) -probably from Maaseik (from his name)> Belgium, close to German and Holland border -painters very mobile> went to where their opportunities were Portrait of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati, 1431 > in Vienna >underdrawing we see description of notes of local dialect of Maaseik -he had a daughter> entered monastery in Maaseik *circumstancial evidence that he is from there -siblings: 2 bros and sister >Hubert van Eyck started Ghent Alterpiece; known as best painter ever by time he died; no attribution to him beside Ghent Altarpiece >Lambert> know very little, painter in Bergudian court, helped settle Jan‟s estate after his dead; number of paintings similar to Jan so we assume the workshop continued in 1440‟s under Lambert with Jan‟s widow -Barthelemy d‟Eyck (?) > unsure if related to Jan; “master of shadows” illuminator Three Maries at the Tomb, 1426> attributed to Hubert -after Christ has risen from his tomb -angel tells the Maries that Christ has risen from the dead -landscape curious: left blocked off by rocks, golden rays -composition: seen as if we‟re on the right >may be the right part of a continuing altarpiece -dendrochronology> suggests that it could have been done before 1426 (unsure, just possibility) -some attribute it the Jan van Eyck> relating it to the Ghent Altarpiece >but unsure who painted it, questionmarkcs -Possibility that Jan trained in Hubert‟s workshop *dates we do know -1422-25 Jan gets money from County of Holland -1424> listed as court poainter of count of Holland (John of Bavaria). He and his painters paid for decorations and wall paintings at Binnenhof -1425 John of Bavaria suddenly dies> Jan is out of a job -later 1425 enters the service of Philip the good (Duke of Burgundy) -possibility that he and Hubert worked together between the months of John of Bavaria‟s death and when he went to work with Philip the Good >explain why their paintings so similar Philip the Good (1396-1467) -Valois Dynasty -Son of John the Fearless; Grandson of Philip the Bold -During his reign, Burgudy reaches its height of its prosperity; commissions many artworks; becomes leading center of the arts Jan becomes a „Valet de Chambre‟ for Philip> salary, pension; painter but also a diplomat >went on secret missions as envoy for the duke between 1426-1429 and again in 1436 -goal of one jouney to negotiate the 3rd marriage of Pjilip to Isabella of Portugal who he painted twice on canvas (Philip could see her_ -he may have gone to the Holy Land >important bc those who went to Holy Land would leave from Venic >thus if did so we know he may have Italian influence -Ghent Altarpiece open to public on May 6, 1432 -makes morgages paymets 1432 onwards -marries „demoiselle‟ Margarete in 1433> suggests she may be lower nobility >suggests Jan‟s important status, he lifted status of painters -first child 1435> godfather is Philip the Good >points Jan‟s high status at court of Philip -1435 his annual salary is converted to a lifelong pension> Philip wants to make sure to keep him in his service, doesn‟t want to lose him >treasurer protests bc thinks its too high, Philip insists that they pay him -same year Treaty of Arras>peace treaty between France, England and Burgundy. Cardinal Albergati was there as well -Jan documented as almost an art dealer or intermediate between Philp the Good and other artists -when he dies in 1441 his widow received considerable high pension> unusual for artists at the time -widows and bro con‟t workshop The Early Years: -1418-1425> John III is Duke of Baravaria is the count of Holland and Zeeland; before this he was a Prince Bishop of Liege >how he may have come to know Jan‟s work -few traces of early work in The Hague have survived -John III owned part of Tres Belles Heures de Notre-Dame come to be known as Turin-Milan hours -some illuminations are attributed to Hubert and/or van Eyck Turin-Milan Hours -manuscript -John III owned part of it (2 sections)> missal and prayer book section >how came to be known as book of hours >Turin library burned down and destroyed in 1904> only black and white photos exist >Missal ended up in Milan, as the Milan Hours >ended up being bought by Turin National Library: Turin-Milan Hours - Master G of the Turin-Milan Hours> generally accepted that „G‟ is Jan Master G, The Birth of St John , Turin-Milan Hours (missal) >tiny >interior scene is precursor of 17th c genre scenes> all sorts of litte things happening, common household ex. Dog and cat fighting -same page, under image is another scene: the baptism of Christ by Saint John the Baptist >detail is 6cm high >increadibly detailed and skilled: refeltion of sun on water, see movement of water, see Holy Spirit coming Mass of the Dead -perspective based on observations rather than mathematical one (several points of perspective) >important to compare this one to jan van eyck, Madonna of the church bc very similar interior of the church -debate bc someone dates this after the Ghent Altarpiece, whereas other date it in the 20s. Some don‟t even think is Jan *for test: give Snyder date OR c. 20s-30s debate! Crucifiction and Last Judgement -the illuminations from “Hand G” have been critical in the attributions of other unsigned, updated works of Hubert and/or Jan Eyck that are thought to be early >remains lots of debate -left panel: crucifiction -right: last judgement >little different bc hell shown at the bottom, ususally shown in right corner with heaven at the left >basic narrative but perculiar to have hell in lower zone -they are transferred from panel, but somepoint transferred onto a canvas >shave off wood under bottom layer and glue canavas onto the back >texture of surface forever changed >can no longer do dendrochronology> not know earliest date -his it Jan or Hubert? Are they unrelated? Before of after Ghent altarpiece -Snyder says its Jan van Eyck> dates in 1430 >Elizabth Dhannens says its not him, another painter from Ghent, lots of active illuminators >Borchert says 1440 and Jan and his workshop >Chatelet says Last Judgement is Hubert and dates 1418, Crucufuxtion is Jan around same date *all very different from scholars -all these authors follow Eichberg in these panels were a diptych. Prof things wings of a Triptych Back to Jan van Eyck -lost compositions> look at copies Man with a Carnation, 1480 -Family of John of Bavaria supported the Order of St Anthony -sitter wears the order‟s insignia “T‟ shaped Tau cross with bell >people who suffered from bad diseases had bell to warn everyone off -people believe copy Fishing Party, 16th c -copy of Jan is generally believed -Huge early reputation> 16th century he was “king of painters” >even in 15th c had great reputation >mentioned in Vasari in 1550 as being inveter of oil paint (not true) >other early sources -we have signed and dated works> generally accepted -number of unsigned, not dated works (lost frames where inscriptions made) but also generally inscripted Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 Portrait of a Young Man, 1432 -same kind of hat as seen in his self portrait> „cheperon‟ which evolved from a hooded cape. The cape part is „patte‟ the round part of the forehead is the „bourrelet‟. Hanging down from the side of the „cornette‟ -history dress imp to dating paintings (viceversa) - “Then God” is inscription at bottom; also “done on Oct 1432 by Jan van Eyck” -don‟t know who this is -thought to be a musician but no notes in his paper so not convincing portrait of a man (self portrait), 1433 -inscription at top in greek letters but in dutch -also dates it -frame is rare construction, mix of intergral frame and an applied frame >horizontal part are separate pieced of wood> note the 6 pins that hold -background not original> la
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