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Lecture 5

BCHM 316 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Glycogen Phosphorylase, Phosphoglucomutase, Glycolysis


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BCHM 316
Professor
Glenville Jones
Lecture
5

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Amylose = ๎€unbranched chains of glucose; alpha 1-4
linkages
Glycogen = ๎€branched energy storage molecule
- There are alpha 1-->6 ๎€branches ๎€every ๎€12-14
residues
- So alpha 1-->4 in the chain, then alpha 1-->6
to branch
- Glycogen is highly branched, it looks like a
feather
- Enzymes can enter the structure and break it down โ†’ energy
release
- At the center, there is ๎€glycogenin๎€, a 37000 kDa protein primer
that has tyrosine residues to allow it to attach to sugars (at
position 1)
- Primer: ๎€6-8 glucose residues, end
attached to glycogenin, branches
from off of it
- Glycogen is found in the ๎€liver๎€ ( to
produce free blood glucose) โ†’ an
energy source for tissues other than
the liver in the early phases of
starvation
- Glycogen is also found in๎€ muscle๎€;
muscle glycogen stores are used
solely by the muscle because the
tissue๎€ lacks ๎€glucose-6-phosphatase
and therefore ๎€cannot
dephosphorylate ๎€G-6-P in order to
make and therefore export glucose.
- Recall G6P needs to be
dephosphorylated to G (glucose) to leave the cell
- In an athletic event, you eventually run out of stored glycogen from muscle
- There is more glycogen in adipose tissue (long-term energy source)
- The granules form star-like rosettes in the cytoplasm surround the mitochondria
- (the cytosol is where processing take place)
What are the advantages of glycogen stores?
- Glycogen stores are rich sources of glucose for energy and C-skeletons
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