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Biol 102.rtf

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BIOL 102

Biochemical Regulation: feedback inhibition: post-translational modification; turnover; activators; substrate levels (one of the easiest ways to control the rates of pathways and pathway activity) after protein is made, it is covalently modified with the addition of some substrate inhibitors vs activators if you decrease Km, it increases affinity and potentially flush through a pathway vmax = the maximum velocity or rate at which the enzyme catalyzed a reaction. it happens when all enzyme active sites are saturated with substrate Km = the substrate concentration at 1/2 the maximum velocity an enzyme can catalyze a reaction in either direction (depends on whether the rxn is endergonic or exergonic) n enzyme is just a catalyst that will drive a rxn in either way Cellular Respiration: taking substrate molecules, oxidizing them, waste is produced (e-), putting e- on O2, CO2 is released, as new products are forms, energy becomes available main roles of pathways: provide ATP and NADH (energy carriers); produce organic molecules that can be turned into other important things for the cell (ex. amino acids) 4 stages of aerobic respiration: glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, citric acid cycle, ETC and chemiosmosis (know what it does (function); roles; where they take place (specifically - such as matrix, membrane etc.); what goes in and what comes out (reactants and products); how is it regulated) the disease cystic fibrosis is a defect in chloride ion transport into the lungs such that the mucous in the lungs becomes dehydrated and thick and bacteria may grow in the lungs. what is the likely defect? defective plasma membrane proteins Glycolysis: energy liberation (substrate-level phosphorylation: taking a P group off a phosphate, and putting it on ATP);
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