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Lecture 1

BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Focal Adhesion, Cell Growth, Atp Synthase

Course Code
BIOL 102
Wayne Snedden

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Biology 102 notes
1.1 The principles of life and levels of biological organization
Principles of Biology
Principle 1:
oCells are the simplest units of life
All organisms are composed of cells
Cells are the smallest units of life
New cells come from pre-existing cells via cell division
Organisms maintain internal organization
Principle 2:
oLiving organisms use energy
Living organisms acquire energy from the environment and use that energy to maintain
their internal order
The energy can be used to synthesize the components that make up individual cells
and living organisms
Principle 3:
oLiving organisms interact with their environment
Includes the environment and other organisms they encounter
Principle 4:
oLiving organisms have mechanisms that maintain homeostasis
Relatively stable internal conditions are maintained, known as homeostasis
The degree of homeostasis maintained varies among different organisms
All organisms continually regulate their cellular metabolism so that nutrient molecules
are used at an appropriate rate and new cellular components are synthesized when
they are needed
Principle 5:
oLiving organisms grow, develop and reproduce
All living organisms have the ability to develop and reproduce
Growth can be more or larger cells
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Principle 6:
oThe genetic material, DNA, provides a dynamic plan for sustaining life
Offspring tend to have characteristics that greatly resemble their parents
Principle 7:
oPopulations of organisms evolve from one generation to the next
A characteristic of life is biological evolution
Principle 8:
oAll life is related by an evolutionary history
All organisms on earth share a common ancestry
Principle 9:
oOrganisms follow the laws of chemistry and physics, and structure determines function
Levels of biological organization
oSmallest component of an element that has the chemical properties of that element
oAll matter is composed of atoms
Molecules and macromolecules:
oMolecules are formed when atoms bonds
oSimilarly structured molecules bond together to form a polymer called a macromolecule.
oMolecules and macromolecules associate with one another to form organized larger structures
(organelles) that are enclosed in a cell membrane.
oCells of the same type associate with each other to form tissues.
oAn organ comprises two or more types of tissue.
Organ systems:
oSeveral organs can work together as an organ system to accomplish a larger function for the
oAs distinct units of life, organisms vary in complexity. Some Organisms consist of billions of cells
organized into organ systems.
oBiologists classify organisms as belonging to a particular species, which is a related group of
organisms that share a distinctive form and set of attributes in nature.
oThe members of the same species are closely related genetically.
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oA group of organisms of the same species that occupy a continuous space is called
a population.
oA biological community is an assemblage of populations of different species.
oThe types of species that are found in a community are determined by the environment and by
the interactions of the species.
oEcosystems are formed by the interactions of a community of organisms with their physical
oThe biosphere includes all the places on Earth where living organisms exist, encompassing the
air, water, and land
1.2 Unity and diversity of life
Life on earth is united by an evolutionary past in which modern organisms have evolved from pre-
existing organisms
“nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”
Vertical descent with mutation
New species evolve from pre-existing species by the accumulation of mutations
oa mutation is an inheritable change in the genetic material of organisms
Horizontal gene transfer
When genes are transferred from one species to another
The web of life accounts for both horizontal gene transfer and vertical evolution
Biology naming system
A system called binomial nomenclature is used
The first part is the genus, and the second part is the specific epithet or species descriptor
There are three domains in life
Bacteria (prokaryotes)
Archaea (prokaryotes)
Eukarya (eukaryotes)
Taxonomic groups
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