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BIOL 103
Sidney Eve Matrix

Chapter 12: Substance-Related Disorders  The pathological use of substances falls into 2 categories o Substance abuse o Substance dependence  presence of at least 3 of the following  The person develops tolerance, indicated by larger doses of the substance being needed to produce the desired effect or the effects of the drug becoming markedly less if the usual mount is taken  Withdrawal symptoms (negative physical and psychological effects when they stop taking it)  The person uses more of the substance or uses it for a longer time than intended  The person recognizes excessive use of the substance, he/she may tried to reduce usage but has been unable to do so  Much of the person’s time is spent in efforts to obtain the substance or recover from its effects  Substance use continues despite psychological or physiological problems caused or exacerbated by the drug  The person gives up or cuts back participation in many activities  Substance dependence is diagnosed as being accompanied by physiological dependence (aka addiction) if either tolerance or withdrawal is present  For less serious diagnoses of substance abuse, the person must experience 1 of the following as a result of recurrent use of the drug o Failure to fulfill major obligations o Exposure to physical dangers o Legal problems o Persistent social or interpersonal problems  Substance intoxication: ingestion of a substance affects the CNS and produces maladaptive cognitive and behavioural effects  If a person addicted to a drug is denied it and then experiences withdrawal, the person receives a diagnoses of both substance dependence and substance withdrawal Alcohol Abuse and Dependence  Alcoholic doesn’t have a precise meaning  Alcohol abuse: used to refer to both aspects of excessive and harmful use of alcohol  Alcohol dependence: may include tolerance or withdrawal reactions (people who are physically dependent on alcohol)  In withdrawal the person is often anxious, depressed, weak, restless and unable to sleep  Delirium tremens (DTs): when the level of alcohol in the blood drops suddenly the person has hallucinations (happens when a person has been drinking for a number of years). They may feel like spiders are crawling on them, feel fever
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