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Lecture 6

BIOL 103 Lecture 6: Biology Week 6

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Queen's University
BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker

Biology Week 6 Immunity in Babies A pregnant woman has the genotype RhRh and the father is Rh+Rh+ Given that Rh+ is dominant, what is the phenotype of the baby At birth It is possible that some of babys blood can mix with mums blood. Her physician suggests that she be inject with some anti Rh+ anibodies this is usually before birth and just after birth o The baby would be Rh+ and would deliver Rh+ to the mother blood that would override the Rh in her immune system that would affect other pregnancies o Rh factor is a glycoprotein on the membrane of the red blood cells o At birth, Rh+ cells can enter the mothers circulation o The mother immune system detects Rh+ as an antigen and triggers an immune response o In a 2 pregnancy antiRh antibodies can cross the placenta and mark the new fetus for destruction Immunity in other systems Plants o Innate response (both general and somewhat specific) General bacteria with flagella, cells have a receptor that detects the flagella and alerts the cell to protect itself Specific resistance genes detect a specific antibody (geneforagene) Closing the stomata to stop bacteria from entering into the cells R factors reistance factors : recognizes pathogens that can lead to the production of protease inhibitor which interferes with the digestion of the tissues One leaf has been attacked, send a message to other leaves to tell them to protect themselves o Defense against virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protists and herbivores o Classic experiments by AF Ross infecting tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus Injected on leaf with virus dead Injected another leaf on same plant not dead Developed an immune response o Capsaicin chemical in hot peppers that acts as a deterrent Insects o Hemolymph 90 plasma amino acids, sugars, ions, proteins and hormones and WATER 10 cells(hemocytes) phagocytosis, ecapsulation, clotting o Insects have the ability to store amino acids or put it through the urea cycle and dont have to undergo deamination o Insects dont need to carry oxygen through red blood cells due to the open circulatory system o Oxygen carried in the plasma itself or in hemoglobin which is not in cells o Except rarely, oxygen is carried by the tracheal system but not by proteins in the hemolymph o phenyl oxidase makes melanin which blocks off the opening for oxygen o Receptors: on the hemocytes and fat body inate signal transduction events leading to activation of mediators such as kinases resulting in the production of effectors such as antimicrobial peptides, virusinduced RNA and thioester containing proteins Endocrine System Rhodnius the kissing bug can transmit trypanosome that can cause chagas disease Blood feeding on lips and they leave feces on lips and if there were sore on lips the virus would enter the system Took a nymph (Rhodnius) and allowed it to have a blood meal waited 28 days after this blood meal o After one day, he took off its head and waited months, and he only had a headless nymph (it needs a head) o Gave it a blood meal, waited 8 days and took off its head, he waited 20 more days and he had an adult nymph Needed a head between 18 days o Gave it a blood meal, took off its head after 1 day and took the 2 nymph (when the head was taken off after 8 days) and glued the two nymphs together where their heads were and then waited and then it grew into an adult o Determined that it could communicate via chemical signals (hormones) Prothoriacic glands moulting glands which produce a steroid hormone or moulting hormone which produces a moult
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