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Lecture 4

BIOL 103 Lecture 4: Biology Week 4

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Queen's University
BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker

Biology Week 4 Internal transport : blood circulation and respiration Blood components o Platelets: filled with microfilaments and actin o Megakaryolites Blood Clotting o The platelets with change their shape and move via their actin o Platelets begin to adhere to one another o The hormone prostaglandin helps the platelets adhere to one another o Prostaglandin Cycloxygenases makes prostaglandin (cox) o Asprin can inhibit COX by putting an acetyl group on COX o Platelets that have adhered to each other create a platelet factor Platelet factor is necessary for taking prothrombin (zymogen) and turning it into thrombin 13 other factors and calcium also help with this transition o Kelating agent can help the blood stay liquid by binding up all the calcium so that it cannot convert prothrombin to thrombin o Thrombin is an endoprotease Responsible for the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin o More calcium is required to bind the fibrin molecules together forming a net and catching red blood cells and forming a mature clot Fibrinogen becomes fibrin via thrombin and releases fibrinopeptides 13 other clotting factors o The clotting factors build off each other and have active and inactive forms, some require calcium and some require vitamin k o Vitamin k found in the gut donates a hydroxyl group so that it can bind to calcium and become active Practical and medical applications o A mutation in the clotting factor decreases the probability of changing prothrombin to thrombin and therefore decreases the probability in forming a blood clot o More older fathers can have children who can have more spontaneous mutations in blood clot factors How to kill rats? o Warfarin poison o Vitamin K reductase recognizes vitamin k o Reductase can mistake warfarin for vitamin k and it does not allow for the clotting factors to become activated andit causes the blood to thin and causes a hemorrhage in the rats brain Gas transport and respirator systems o Red blood cells contain hemoglobin and have a plasma membrane with glycoproteins including ABO and Rh o The type of glycoproteins on your red blood cells determine the blood type o Heme groups bind to oxygen Hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetramer with 2 beta globins and 2 alpha globins If each erythrocyte has 300 M Hb molecules, then how many molecules of )2 could be carrued? (a heckin lot) Keep in mind that in mammals the circulator system separated the pulmonary and systemic circuits o the pulmonary circuit is exposed to a high partial pressure of o2ygen (P ) at the lungs gases and gas pressure o air is : 21 oxygen 78 nitrogen <1 carbon dioxide and other gases o Use mmHg o Atmospheric pressure is the sum of the partial pressures in proportion to their amounts o P = 0.21 x 760 mmhg = 160 mmhg o2 o Diffusion across cell membranes is driven by partial pressure gradients In the lungs, oxygen diffuses across the membranes of the alveoli and is picked up by the hemoglobin Any carbon dioxide on the hemoglobin is releases because the partial pressures of carbon dioxide is low in the lungs Gas exchange o O2 is transferred to the tissues to be used and CO2 is transferred from the tissues to the blood cells o CO2 can combine with: Plasma Erythrocytes; (not Fe) Carbonic anhydrase
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