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BIOL 103 Lecture Notes Jan 14

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Queen's University
BIOL 103

th Biology 103, Week of Jan 14 Absorption  Rate increased by surface area, which is increased by villi (lacteals, capillaries) and microvilli  fatty acids taken up by lacteals Absorptive state: ingested nutrients inter the blood from gastrointestinal tract Post-absorptive state: gastrointestinal tract in empty of nutrients; body’s stores must supply energy Absorbed Carbohydrates (Immediate Energy)  mainly glucose, galactose, fructose  enters cells, and broken down into CO 2nd water, releasing energy to form ATP (from ADP and phosphate)  if there is excess glucose that cannot be used right away, it is primarily stored as glycogen in the liver, or put toward triglycerides in fat cells Absorbed Triglycerides (Stored for Future use)  packaged and enter blood circulation, enzyme lipoprotein lipase releases fatty acids into triglycerides, which are stored in fat cells until body required energy Absorbed Amino Acids  taken up by all body cells, used to synthesize proteins which are constantly being degraded  excess amino acids are converted by liver cells into glucose or triglycerides  we cannot store great quantities of amino acids, so we use deamination enzymes for deamination reactions which hydrolyze bonds into deaminated amino acid and ammonia (very toxic) and put it through urea cycle in the liver to convert it to urea  -urea cycle is not “cheap” – many steps to get final product Digestion in insects  Similar to digestion in vertebrates, but no pepsin, because their stomach is not acidic enough  Tsetse fly salivary glands adaptation: o active proteases eliminated with feces; fly lays eggs in fur, larvae start to eat living flesh (trypsin, chymotrypsin like, which they poop out, pH is high and kills bacteria on flesh) * clicker -protozoa and bacteria produce cellulases Secretion and Ion Transport Discretion: Elimination:  sharks and rays take ammonia and put it through urea cycle although they live in water and could simply dilute it  sharks live in salt water and they produce urea; sharks also use urea in tissue so it is almost isotonic with the surrounding salt water and urea it has released (SLIGHTLY hypotonic… small tendency for water to come into gills of shark)  extra salt is gotten rid of by rectum of shark  shark steak tastes like urine therefore, soak steaks in milk before cooking (or water)  shark blood changed constantly; volume of blood in diluted oceans will increase (osmosis) Saltwater Fish (bony fish)  hypotonic; in danger of dehydration, must drink lots of water  concentrated urine, because they want to keep all water they can get  salt transported out of body by cells in gills Freshwater fish  hypertonic; in danger of being water logged  do not drink, water comes through gills; they get salt through food  active uptake of ions (Na and Cl) through gills into capillaries  large amount of urine which is highly diluted Human disease: Liver cirrhosis
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