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BIOL 103 Lecture Notes Jan 28

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BIOL 103
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Week of January 28, 2014 Blood compartments Blood Clotting – see diagram in notebook, and figure 44.8 from text to understand further -when clot is no longer needed (to block tear in blood vessel), body dissolves it -some activations require Ca+, some require vitamin K -Warfarin “rat poison” activates vitamin K, which we use to kill rats (causes a brain hemorrhage causing a stroke) Gas Transport & Respiratory -human body changed the shape and got rid of nucleus of red blood cell; membrane has glycoprotein -hemoglobin is a tetramer -300 million of these subunits in each blood cell; each cell can contain 10^9 of oxygen -at lungs, partial pressure of oxygen is high Gases and gas pressure 21% oxygen 78% nitrogen <1% CO2 and other gases When we use up oxygen, partial pressure of O2 decreases (fig 44.15) Clicker: 760 mmHg sea level (oxygen is 20 percent), what is the partial pressure of oxygen? Take 0.2x760 = 152 Clicker: Hemoglobin molecules in RBCs are most efficient as carrying oxygen in blood -any CO2 in hemoglobin released in the lungs because partial pressure of CO2 in lungs is very low Not only does O2 cross respiratory organ cells, but also RBC membrane Oxygen released from RBC CO2 -Plasma carry some CO2 -RBC carry some -Most combines with water (carbonic acid), (check about bicarbonate?) Under acid conditions, more O2 released from hemoglobin *see O2 Hb dissociation curve -partial pressure of oxygen is low, there isn’t enough to deliver to the lungs which could cause death -people with large lung capacities can deliver more oxygen, and increase number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood, therefore more hemoglobin -athletes work out to be able to deliver more oxygen to tissues, working out in somewhere like Banff can increase RBCs and hemoglobin -lamas have a curve shifted to the right (% saturation of hemoglobin vs. partial pressure of oxy), and can load up completely with oxygen; therefore, when partial pressure of oxygen is low, they can use excess oxygen stored -human fetus is like a lama’s, where the fetus needs to load up on oxygen from the mother **see globin synthesis during human development slide -histones are like a blanket exposing different genes Sickle cell anemia is an example of a blood disease caused by mutation -Hemoglobin of a sickle
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