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BIOL 110 (104)


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BIOL 110
Gordon Dueck

 The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, discerns spatial relations and patterns and is involved in emotion and intuition  The two hemispheres communicate with each other constantly via the corpus callosum  The grey matter of the cerebral cortex does not extend throughout the interior of the brain.  Much of the interior is white matter made up of large tracts or bundles or myelinated (sheathed) fibres that connect cell bodies in the cortex with those in the spinal cord and other centres lower in the brain  These centres are pockets of grey matter referred to as nuclei. The nuclei serve both as way stations connecting tracts from the cortex with other ascending and descending tracts and as integrating motor and sensory control centres.  Some cortical cells project their long fibres or axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord but others project them only as far as these clusters of interconnecting neuron cell bodies.  Four masses are deep within each hemisphere called collectively the basal ganglia. Also deep within the brain are cavities called ventricles; those are continuo’s with the central canal of the spinal cord and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid  1) The diencephalons connected in the front of the hemispheres and behind with the midbrain contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus both consisting of groups of nuclei. The thalamus is a relay station for all sensory pathways except the olfactory. The nuclei making up the thalamus receive nearly all the impulse arriving from the different sensory areas of the body and then pass tem on to the cerebrum where they are interpreted as conscious sensations. The hypothalamus is the highest centre of integration for many visceral processes, regulating metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleeping and appetite  2) The midbrain is a mass nerve fibre tracts connecting the cerebral cortex with the pons, the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum and the spinal cord  3) The brain stem comprises the pons and the medulla oblongata and functions primarily as a neural relay station. The pons contains tracts that connect the cerebellum with the spinal cord and with motor areas of the cerebrum. The medulla oblongata serves as the main line of traffic for tracts asceing from the spinal cord and desceing from t
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