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Lab Practical #1.docx

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BIOL 202
Chris Moyes

Biology 202 Lab Practical #1 Review Lab 1: Lab Intro and Phyla Porifera ( Calcarea, Hexactenelida &Spogin) and Cnidaria( Hydrozoa & Scyphozoa) - What is an invertebrate? An animal that lacks a back bone. Much great number and diversity of invertebrates versus vertebrates. They share basic characteristics of : soft bodies or exoskeletons, ventral nerve cords and dorsally located hearts ( only the more advanced species). Phylum Porifera (Sponges) - Sessile ( adhere to a substrate) & often encrust rocks. Can be up to a meter in length ( large glass sponges). Multicellular but do not exhibit a true tissue system. Body organized around a pore or canal system which they pump water through. - Most typical cell is the flagellated Choanocyte, or collar cell. they use this to circulate water through their pores allowing them to filter feed. - Sponges are divieded into groups based on the type of spicules in their skeleton. The 3 classes are: bony ( the Calcarea), glass (the Hexactenellida), and spongin (the Demospongiae, represent at least 80% of all sponges). - FIGURE 1.1 = Body wall of a sponge. Pointy stars= spicules, Lipid looking cells = Chaoncytes, intercellular fluid= mesophyll, Outer coating = epidermis, canals into the cell body= porocytes. Phylum Cnidaria - Simplest Eumetazoa (organism that have clearly recognizable tissues and/or organs), Radially symmetrical or Bilaterally symmetrical. Often occur in two forms: a tubular , blind sac the Polyp with tentacles surrounding the mouth or the Medusa, or jellyfish also with tentacles. - Class Hydrozoa: Asexual Polyps and Sexual Medusae. - Cross section of a hydra: Inner cavity= gastrovascular cavity, Inner layer of cells= gastrodermis, division of inner and outer layers= mesoglea, darker cell with a tail = Cnidocyte ( the tail , used for prey capture and defense is the Nematocyst) - Class Scyphozoa: Emphasizes the Medusoid sage. Longitudinal septa in gastric cavity. Life cycle: 1) Planula, the typical larvae with solid multicellular form with a ciliated exterior. 2) it then settles and develops into the Scyphistoma. 3) that then forms a Strobila , a series of saucerlike buds or Ephyrae. 4) the Ephyrae is the immature Medusa, so they will mature into a full jellyfish. - Class Anthozoa: exclusively attached polyps ( sea anemones and corals), gastric cavity divided by septa. Two Subclasses: 1) Acyonaria ( soft corals, sea fans and sea pens). 2) Zoantharia ( black corals, stony corals ). Lab 2: The worms- Phyla Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria , Cestooidea & Trematoda), Nematoda and Annelida ( Clittellatea [ Oligochaetes & Hirudinea] & Polychaeta) - Distant relatives but they allows for the study of Coeloms (body cavities), Segmentation and Organ Systems. All Bilaterally symmetrical. Phyla Platyhelminthes - Class Turbellaria (Most marine free living flatworms): Larval stages exhibits brief planktonic state. Whole mount: Eyespot= dark spots near the arrow shaped end of body. Pharynx= ridge the back of organism. Gastrovascular Cavity= open area in the tail portion of organism. Cross section: Epithelium= lining of the inner cavitys. Parenchyma = intercellular fluid. Circular muscle layers: wraps around the pharynx. Pharynx= central ring. Intestines= Smalller rings alongside of the pharynx. Ciliated epidermis= outer covering with small projects ( on the underside). Pharyngeal cavity = central cavity. Longitudinal muscles= muscles running length wise on the organism. - Class Trematoda ( Flukes): all parasitic, major medical and economic importance, complex multi host lifecycles, Specific adaptions for parasitic life. Whole Mount: Suckers= round openings towards the front( narrowest part) of the organism. Testes= thick tubes located away from the suckers. Uterus containing eggs= Smaller bundle of tubes, centrally located. Intenstine= tubes running the length of the organism. General Lifecycle: Eggs Miracidia Rediae Adult. - Class Cestooidea ( Tapeworms) : parasites, complex life cycles, complex head or scolex and ribbion like body composed of proglottids ( a chain of them allows for packaging and distribution of the gonads. 4X magnification of speciement: Scolex= Small round end to the segments. Neck= long first segment. Immature Proglottid= segment that look empty or light in color. Mature Proglottid= segment being to fill up with gonads, organs still visible, darker in color. Gravid proglottid= about to burst packed with gonads, very dark in color. 10X magnification: Genital Pore: small opening + tube , connected to the ovarys, Ovaries= small clusters within at the end of the genital pore tube, Uterus= darker spots located around the ovary. Testes= small cirlces around everything. Phyla Nematoda - Roundworms, both free living and parasitic , first organisms to shows a complete digestive tract, coelom not completely lined with peritoneum ( pseudocoel) - Nematoda: Whole mount: Mouth= flatter end, cuticle = outer covering, anus= narrower end (hooked on males). Male Cross section: testes= dark grouping of small masses with a ring aroung them. Intestine= long whiteish string. Female Cross section: Uterus= large mass of dark dots, non-uniform edge. Ovaries= round or oval shape with visible difference in the center (looks like a donut). Phyla Annelida - True coelom, well developed organ systems , display segmentation (metamerism), increased cephalization, well developed nervous system and closed circulatory system - Class Clittellatea: Oligochaetes ( earthworms) have bristles or setae in small bundles, lack ap
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