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BIOL 210
Adam K Chippindale

Paper disadvantage of asexuals chromosomes 8 and 9 that have converted D pulex to obligately asexual mechanisms for asexuals to convert sexuals in this study took a genomic approach to seehow ancient is this phenomenon 1000yrs old not finding an accumulation of small effect mutations like Mullers ratchet predictedAsexuality is a sexually transmitted disease in DaphniaLynchs group shows that most asexual lineages of D pulex are evolutionarily very young1000y chromosomes 8 and 9 carry recombinationsuppressing genes that prevent females from making haploid eggs and ensure their transmission as supergenes these chromosomes get transferred to D pulex by males produced by obligately asexual femalesthis allows the invading asexual type to acquire new variationthe study shows that asexuals degenerate far faster than predicted by Mullers ratchet and not by conventional mutation asexuals experience extremely rapid loss of heterozygosity due to rampant gene conversion between homologous chromosomes and deletionsthe internal warfare of selfish genetic elements will be explored later in the courseDiversity hypothesespossible benefits related to diversity3 The Red Queen HypothesisLeigh Van Valen 1973 likened evolution to an arms racebecause other species are constantly improving as competitors or predators a species has to constantly evolve just to stay in one place survive in its nicheVan Valens formulation was directed at macroevolutionary patterns such asspecies extinctions in the fossil recordA microevolutionary interpretation has become synonymous with the RQ hypothesis no matter how well an organism is doing at time A other species are competing with it for resources so it must continue to change in response
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