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Lecture 33

BIOL 316 Lecture 33: BIOL 316 WEEK 11 NOTES

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BIOL 316
Bruce Tufts

BIOL 316 Week 11 Notes LECTURE 1: Evolution of Fish  Shift in trait for production and maintenance o Growth rate vs reproduction rate  Dependent on the existing selective pressure o Applies to current situations, can very in time  Example: Mesh nets o Selects for specific size in fish  Selection pressure for greater fish size at a younger age/ faster rate o Increases pressure for smaller fish who pass through these Mesh nets Hypothesis: Increase in selective pressure of smaller fish over time  Multiple selective pressure used = fish size increases fitness o Example: Mesh nets that catcher larger fish = increase survival of smaller fish  Fisheries: Improve selective pressure of fish size o Selective pressure for slow growth rate, faster maturation  Pressure can ‘evolve’ fish populations through fishing  Commercial and recreational fisheries can be affected  Size and age of maturity has declined over time o Fisheries selective pressure for a specific size preference (Commercial and Recreational)  Resulted in a decrease in abundance for larger size individuals  Commercial and Recreational Fisheries has impacted natural selection of fish o Quantitative traits = most effective  Evolution = decrease harvest amount LECTURE 2: Marine Protected Areas (MPA), Sanctuaries and Conservation Reserves  MPA’s help in species preservation and protection of biodiversity  No protection = Environmental/ habitat degradation from human intervention o Large factor of anthropogenic actions such as commercial fisheries Global Target:  1992, Canada and other countries contributed to this o Goal of conservation of ~10% of marine life by 2020  Currently, we are at ~3%  MPA= Mostly USA water o Protection varies in both micro and macro scale  Exponential increase with rate of new MPA worldwild o Continuous ef
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