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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Tools for Survival.pdf

4 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 319
Dale Kristensen

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Lesson 71 Material Culture Tools for SurvivalHunter GatherersLesson Objectives Identify the four main components associated with human survival and identify how and why needs might vary among different TI culturesIdentify how tools derived largely from plant materials are used for survival by subsistence HG culturesDescribe examples of tool design convergence and divergence among various HG cultures and how they are usedContainers carrying cooking instruments spiritual and entertainmentHow does need affect the development of material goodsDifferent materials available to different societies will affect what tools they can come up with BUT it is possible for two disparate cultures to come up with fairly similar tools using different materials BUT how much inuence to local resources have on the development of societies vs how much societies develop independently regardless of the available resources 1 Where basic survival needs are similar and welldened there is cultural convergence toward the devising of similar material goods When there is an integral need cultures have come up with similar solutions using different materials ie basketcarrying tool 2 Where needs are indirectly related to survival cultural ingenuity and available resources combine to produce goods of considerable diversity in style shape structural material and function but constrained by purposeMore diverse range of tools created but same general purpose ie hammock papoosa3 Where leisure and spiritual requirements dictate need material resources are often used in culturally unique ways Ie totems decoration and headpieces tattoos preparation and patternsTools necessary for survival1 Tools for acquiring food2 Tools for acquiring water3 Tools for protection shelters clothing combatThe tools that fulll these needs are critical although their design will vary depending on distinct need cultural ingenuity and the raw materials availableHunter Gatherers 1 Acquisition of food Differences from agrarian culturesneeded to be able to acquire foods from their surrounding environments vs agrarian needed ability to consistently produce crops Fishing tools often display considerable convergence between societies Fish nets spears woven sh traps etc many similarities all over the world
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