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BIOL 325 (21)
Lecture

chapter 53.doc

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 325
Professor
Richard Ascough
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 53 Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology531 What Questions Do Biologists Ask About BehaviourEthology the study of animal behaviour from an evolutionary perspectiveFor many animals much of their behaviour is like the webspinning behaviour of spiders unlearned and highly stereotypicStereotypic behaviour is often speciesspecificmost individual of a given species perform the behaviour in the same way532 How Do Genes and Environment Interact to Shape BehaviourGenes do not encode behaviours rather affect behaviour by setting motion a series of geneenvironment interactions that underlie the development of proximate mechanisms that enable certain behavioural responsesExperiments can distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on behaviourDeprivation experiment rear young animal so it is deprived of all experiences relevant to the behaviour understudy If it still exhibits the behaviour we may assume that the behaviour can develop without opportunities to learn itGenetic experiment investigators alter the genomes of organisms by interbreeding closely related species by comparing individuals that differ in only one or a few genes or by knocking out or inserting specific genes to determine how these manipulations affect their behaviourGenetic control of behaviour is adaptive under many conditionsIndividuals might fail to acquire the appropriate behaviour or acquire the appropriate behaviour or acquire inappropriate behaviour if genes did not exert strong influences on the development of the behaviourInherited behaviour is also adaptive when mistakes are costly or dangerousInheritance of behaviour patterns used to avoid predators or capture dangerous prey is obviously adaptive allow no room for mistakesReleaseran object event or condition required to elicit behaviourImprinting takes place at a specific point in developmentSome types of learning take place only at a specific time in animals developmentcritical periodImprinting animal learns a set of stimuli during a limited critical period eg behaviour learned by imprinting is the recognition of offspring by their parents and of parents by their offspringIndividual recognition must often be learned quickly opportunity to do so may arise only onceImprinting requires only a brief exposure but its effects are strong and can last a long timeThe critical period for imprinting may be determined by a brief development of hormonal stateHormones influence behaviour at genetically determined timesIn multicellular organisms all behaviour depends on the nervous system for initiation coordination and executionHormones of the endocrine system determine when a particular behaviour is performed as well as when certain behaviours can be learned533 How Do Behavioural Responses to the Environment Influence Fitness
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