CHEM 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Herbivore, Vitamin A, Digestion

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Nutrition is the balance between nutrient intake and the balance between nutrient intake and the. Chapter 41 notes: nutrition and digestion needs of the body. Omnivores: do(cid:374)"t i(cid:374) fa(cid:272)t eat e(cid:448)e(cid:396)ythi(cid:374)g, (cid:271)ut do (cid:396)egula(cid:396)ly (cid:272)o(cid:374)su(cid:373)e a(cid:374)i(cid:373)als as (cid:449)ell as pla(cid:374)ts o(cid:396) algae. An adequate diet must satisfy 3 nutritional needs: chemical energy for cellular processes, building blocks for macromolecules, and essential nutrients. Mate(cid:396)ials that a(cid:374) a(cid:374)i(cid:373)al"s (cid:272)ells (cid:396)e(cid:395)ui(cid:396)e (cid:271)ut (cid:272)a(cid:374)(cid:374)ot sy(cid:374)thesize. O(cid:271)tai(cid:374)ed f(cid:396)o(cid:373) dieta(cid:396)y sou(cid:396)(cid:272)es these nutrients include certain minerals and pre-assembled organic molecules. Whereas, others are needed only by certain species. Example: ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is essential for humans and other primates, guinea pigs, and some birds and snakes, but not for most other animals. Classes of essential nutrients: essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals. Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins. The majority of animal species have the enzymes to synthesize about of these amino acids, as long their diet includes sulfur and nitrogen.