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Acid and Bases Lecture Notes (Part I)

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CHEM 112
John Carran

Arrhenius Definition of Acid and Bases • Aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes exist only in the form of ions • Weak electrolytes exist partly as ions and partly as molecules • Hydrogen ion = protons = hydrides • Suggested that all acids contain hydrogen atoms, while all bases contain hydroxide ions, however this theory couldn’t explain the basic characteristic of ammonia (NH ) 3olution • Failed because it didn’t recognize the important of solvent H 2 in ionization of solute molecules Bronsted – Lowry Acid and Bases • Acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor • Base is a proton acceptor • However FeBr3, AlCl3, ZnCl2 BF3, CH4 are all acids (see Lewis acids later) • ***slide 8: arrows should be reversed*** • Electrons always move towards the deficit of electron densities Increasing acid/base strength • Acid and bases occur as conjugate acid – base pairs • Adding electronegative groups increase acidity (ex. adding fluorine) • Adding alkyl groups release electron density and decreases acidity • Pushing in electron density makes stronger base • Pulling out electron density makes weaker base • Salvation and more resonance (change where equilibrium lies) increase strength • Strongest acid and base you can have, regardless of other reactants, in solution is H O+3 and OH-, respectively. • Strength of base or acid is inversely related to the strength of its conjugate pair Ionization Constant • Water is not used in calculation • No units; dimensionless [products] • K = [reactants] • Ka or Kb for acids and bases respectively Self-Ionozation (autoionization) of Water • Contains very low
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