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CHEM 112 Lecture Notes - Nitric Acid, Strontium Hydroxide, Colligative Properties

Course Code
CHEM 112
John Carran

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Arrhenius Definition of Acid and Bases
Aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes exist only in the form of ions
Weak electrolytes exist partly as ions and partly as molecules
Hydrogen ion = protons = hydrides
Suggested that all acids contain hydrogen atoms, while all bases contain hydroxide ions,
however this theory couldn’t explain the basic characteristic of ammonia (NH3) solution
Failed because it didn’t recognize the important of solvent H2O in ionization of solute
Bronsted – Lowry Acid and Bases
Acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor
Base is a proton acceptor
However FeBr3, AlCl3, ZnCl2 BF3, CH4 are all acids (see Lewis acids later)
***slide 8: arrows should be reversed***
Electrons always move towards the deficit of electron densities
Increasing acid/base strength
Acid and bases occur as conjugate acid – base pairs
Adding electronegative groups increase acidity (ex. adding fluorine)
Adding alkyl groups release electron density and decreases acidity
Pushing in electron density makes stronger base
Pulling out electron density makes weaker base
Salvation and more resonance (change where equilibrium lies) increase strength
Strongest acid and base you can have, regardless of other reactants, in solution is H3O+
and OH-, respectively.
Strength of base or acid is inversely related to the strength of its conjugate pair
Ionization Constant
Water is not used in calculation
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