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CLST 100 (116)
Lecture

November 13, 2012- Philosophers.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 100
Professor
Christina Zaccagnino

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 Miletus is a place where different cultures could meet and create the base of philosophy  The first question philosophers asked was about the origin of the world Thales from Miletus c. 580 BCE o He believed that water is the source of all things o He believed that earthquakes happened when water was moved by wind o This belief was also present in Eastern cultures and Egypt Anaximander from Miletus c. 610-546 BCE o He thought that boundless was at the origin of everything  Everything was in a boundless environment o Map of Anaximander’s universe: At the centre there was the earth, then the ring of the stars, the ring of the moon, and the ring of the sun Anaximenes from Miletus died c.528 BCE o He believed air is the source of all things Xenophanes from Kolophon c. 570-460 BCE o His ideas about religion are particularly important o According to him gods had the same shameful characteristics of men o Men think gods are born and have clothes and voices and bodies like their own o Men liked to have gods that looked like them, so they gave the gods their physical aspects and characteristics Parmenides from Elea c. 480 BCE o He believed that change was impossible o Everything that happened could not be altered, “it is what it is” Heraklitos from Ephesos c. 480 BCE o Thought that the world was made from the unity of the opposites o Balance happened through this unity o He criticized the need to purify oneself with blood, since men would use the same source of material, meaning there was no opposites o Criticized the way people prayed to images of gods, as they did not know the true nature of the gods Emphedocles from Akragas (Sicily) c. 495-435 BCE o He believed everything in the world is produced by the mixture and separation of four elements: earth, air, fire and water, which were moved by two opposites forces, strife and lov Demokrit
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