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CLST; Week 1 Lecture 1 Foundation of Rome, Republic.docx

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Foundation of Rome: Vitruvius, writer on architecture, believed success was inevitable by it's geographic position, but little to commend it  but geographic location can explain early prominence and growth of site of Rome in central Italy; Palatine and Capitoline Hills easily defensible sites  Iron Age village of huts form first urban community in 1000 BCE, valley bottom below Capitol drained and paved to become the Forum, above was acropolis  Roman foundation myths often associated to the negative: brutality, killing, exile  beginning stories involved ancestors making long journeys from elsewhere to found city  many stories of wanderings of heroes following the Trojan War - epics by Homer  Herakles: worshipped at the Great Alter (Ara Maxima) Remus and Romulus: Rome's twin founders, Romulus considered sole founder  grandfather was Numitor, king of Alba Longa, father of Rhea Silvia  his brother, Amulius deposed him, killed his sons, forced Rhea to become Vestal Virgin  Rhea conceived Romulus and Remus by either Mars or Hercules, Amulius left them to die, but first saved by she-wolf and then a shepherd (Faustulus, Acca Larentia deemed uncivilized and outsiders by society) fostered and raised them  Twins natural leaders, had many followers, killed Amulius when told identities, returned Numitor to throne and decided to found new city for themselves  Had dispute over where to build new city; Romulus - Palatine, Remus - Aventine (decided to be determined by augury), and over this dispute, Remus was killed  establishment of Rome: encouraged homeless, vagabonds, criminals of Italy, gained resources from pillaging neighbours and abducting women from the Sabines Aeneas: Trojan hero, son of prince Anchises and Aphrodite, who wandered world after the sack of Troy, before settling in central Italy to found the community where Remus and Romulus were later born  Latinus, king of the Latins had his daughter promised to another king, but received prophecy that she would be betrothed to one from another land - Aeneas, so he heeded to it and Aeneas marries Lavinia, so the king declares war on Aeneas, but Aeneas wins the war founds the city of Lavinium, named after his wife   he became a god after death, leaving Ascanius, now called Julius, as his successor, and he founds Alba Longa  Why Alba Longa? Aeneas made a sacrifice to thank the gods for reaching place safely and during this, they saw a white sow, nursing 30 newborn piglets; alba: white in Latin, founded 30 years after the story  in the 4th century, there was a large cult to Aeneas at the centre of Lavinium  myth of Aeneas widely used to trace Augustus back to Aeneas Gens (clan) Iulia: claimed to have descended from Aeneas, most famous members of gens:  Caius Julius Caesar  Caius Octavius:
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