Acts of Apostles (pg.1)
o Born into Roman citizenship.
o Slaves could also be given citizenship if made a freeman.
One of the ways to become free was to pay for it.
Rome placed in the middle of the ‘boot’
- Important to have a settlement where they can defend themselves and
to acquire resources (such as rivers).
- Also good to be placed close to the coast.
o The Alps help to protect Rome
o Apennine mountains as well
o Sicily and Sardinia close
o Tyrrhenian Sea (to the left of the boot)
o Ionian Sea (underneath the boot)
o Adriatic Sea (to the right of the boot)
- Temperate country
- Etruscan colonies and settlements around Rome. They spoke a
different language as Romans spoke Latin and they spoke Etruscan.
- Etruscans use a Greek alphabet so not difficult to understand.
- The shape of the Palatine hill and the Capitoline hill were easy to
- Tiber River - island within the river (tiber island)
- Salt is important in antiquity as it is a part of the diet. It also helps to
- The English word Salary comes from the Latin word Sal (given to
soldiers to buy salt)
- The people who originally settled on Rome lived in huts. Postholes
were found on the Palatine hill.
- Hut-urns were not a Roman thing alone but Etruscans also had them.
Characters in the Myth
Romulus and Remus
The Capitoline Wolf – the boys drank her milk.
Amulius, king of Alba Longa
Numitor brother of Amulius
Rhea Silvia daughter of Numitor and Vestal Virgin
Not allowed to get married and have offspring.
The god Mars (god of war) fell in love with Rhea Silvia. He is the twins
father. Amulius ordered the two twins should be thrown into the Tiber river.
He gave them to a servant to dispose of but the servant put them at the edge
of the river. There was a flood and when it stopped the she-wolf found the
twins and took care of them.
They were discovered beside a fig tree (Ficus Ruminalis) by shepherds.
Among the Sheppard’s was Faustulus. He took them to his wife Acca Larentia.
They raised the twins. When they become adults, they wanted to found a city exactly in the place where they were found and saved. A rivalry developed
between the two boys.
They had to decide which of them would rule and give their city (Roma
or Remora). Remus takes his place on the Little Aventine hill and waits for a
bird. Ditto for Romulus except by the Tiber. They decided based on the flight
patterns of birds and the better omen went to Romulus.
Birth of Rome – April 21 , 753 BCE
Romulus cuts the furrow in the ground with the plough.
After Romulus built the walls to protect the city. Remus was killed on
the wall. Because if Remus had wanted to enter the city in a friendly way, he
would have entered through the gates but instead he leaped onto the walls.
Romulus welcomed exiled people into the city which made a lot of
criminals present in the town and mainly men. Only men within the city so
they needed some women. They reached the population of the Sabine
women and decided to kidnap and rape them.
Herakles = Hercules
Worshipped at the Great Alter (Ara Maxima) in Rome. The cult founded by
Evander and the Acadians after Hercules killed the bandit Cacus, who robbed
the hero of the cattle of Geryon.
Aeneas was a figure who could connect Rome to the Greek past. He was a
Trojan hero who fought in the war. Did not make the distinction between
Trojans and Greeks but just considered them to be a part of the Greek past.
He was able to escape the sack of Troy and carried his father Anchises on his
back. He was considered pious because he saved his old father as his father
could not keep up due to age. He also escaped with a younger boy. On his
journey, he fell in love with Dido but left her to found a new city as it was
more important. Carried a statue of Athena.
Latium and Alba important.
Aeneas fights with the indigenous inhabitants (called Aborigines), after his
betrothal to Lavinia, a local princess, daughter of the King Latinus, previously
betrothed to a local prince. He had to fight to get her as the prince was not
happy about a foreigner taking his fiancé. Aeneas marries Lavinia. Aenas
founds the city Lavinium.
Aeneas dies and becomes a god. Leaves Ascanius, now called Julus (also
spelt with an ‘I’) as his successor. Acanius founds Alba Longa.
By 4 century BCE cult to Aeneas at Lavinium.
Ara Pacis (alter to peace). Aeneas and his son about to offer a white sow
when the animal runs away, so he follows the animal to try and catch it.
Finally he found it and realized that the animal had delivered 30 piglets. He
believes this an omen that a city must be founded here. That night he had a dream. He had to wait 30 years before founding a city. The son founded it.
Alba is the feminine form of the adjective ‘for white’.
Gens Julia – claimed to descend from Aeneas. The most famous member of
the gens are Caius Julius Caesar.
Also, Cauis Octavius, later C. Julius Caesar Octavianus after adoption
by Caesar, and then Augustus the first emperor of Rome.
Fabius Pictor – first roman historian
Virgil – author of the Aeneid
The Seven Kings
- Numa Pompilius
- Tullus Hostilius (was a Sabine)
- Ancus Marcius
- Tarquinius Priscus
- Tarquinius Superbus (the Arrogant)
The last three were Etruscans.
They were at first leaders of different clans.
Gens (pl. gentes) = clan
Praenomen (person name) Marcus Tullius Nomen (name of the gens)
Tullii = members of the gens Tullia
Roman tria nomina (three n