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CLST 101 (73)

February 5, 2013- Provinces.docx

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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Provinces  Rome only had control in the Italian Peninsula in 264 BC  The Carthaginian Empire controlled much more than the Roman Republic  At the end of the First Punic War Rome controlled territories overseas for the first time  The first overseas province Rome controlled was Sicily in 241 BCE  The administration of it was given to the Senate  The Senate was also in charge of all subsequent provinces in this period  To be a province meant that they were a subject territory and they had to pay a tribute to Rome  Prouincaterritorial possession and sphere of military activity governors (Proconsuls/propraetors) o There were provinces where it was necessary to have an army to control the territory o The governors were men who also had held consulship or praetorship especially in the areas where there was less stability and a requirement for more military involvement  The Senate decided to choose governors from its own rank o The assignment was done by lot o In some cases specific people were designated for governor  Governors generally had already been consul or praetor  A quaestor who was elected each year dealt with financial dealings/issue  One or more legati (sg. Legatus) were the subordinates of a governor  Praefecti (sg. Praefectus) prefects o Needed in the administration of the province  Comites companions o Loyal friends brought along by the governor  It was also necessary to have scribes, attendants, and lictors  The main duties of a governor were: o To promote Roman interests o To maintain peace and order  To protect it against foreign enemies and domestic agitators  To serve as a judge in legal disputes  Established at the beginning of their term how issues would be dealt with  Consilium council o Used by the governor when faced with issues o Provided advice for him on how to solve conflicts o In 89 Cnaeus Poemeius Strabo granted citizenship to a group of Spanish cavalrymen  He was only 17 at this time (he was a councillor for this issue)  The military aspect of the government is also clear in several portraits of governors, as they are portrayed with armour beside them and as older men (middle age) yet had very fit bodies o This was called heroic nudity, as the body looked like a young hero, but the portrait is a realistic one of the governor  Lex prouinciae law for the province  Publius Rupilius
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