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Classical Studies
CLST 129
Anne Foley

Lecture 1 12/16/12 2:25 PM Archaeology – studying ancient civilizations with a focus on material remains, “search for buried treasure,” how do we find it, where do we look; began as a search for loot then more scientific Treasure – not things that have monetary value, more scientific search, change of focus from excavating looking for money, valuables; now it is everything that we find Pompeii • Covered by two volcanic eruptions th • In 19 century site was considered historically important Heinrich Sleeman – Homer • Dug up ancient sites, ex: Troy, etc to prove that they really existed • Everyone started to believe him because he found Troy and Miciny Arthur Evans • Excavated Knossos • Came from wealthy English family • Went to Knossos to find out more about their writing Carl Blagen • American, forward thinking, concerned with finding out all eh could about the civilizations • Excavated at a number of sites • Began by excavating ordinary village sites that told him how the rest of the people lived (not aristocracy) • Went back to Troy Prof. Foley 506 Watson Hall Lecture 2 12/16/12 2:25 PM Geography of Greece • Mountainous landscape • Largest island Crete • Almost entire surrounded by sea • Different times in history people lived closer to the water and near plains, also lived near mountains because it was safer • People never thought of themselves as “Greek” referred to themselves as Athenians, Spartans, etc • Not a lot of agricultural land – means Greece cannot support a large population • Greece encompassed part of Italy (Sicily) and coast of turkey during antiquity Meteora • Many monasteries – important because they contain old documents • Monasteries only accept men Northern Greece • Architecture different from the south • Temperatures from 0 to 40s • Villages built on mountain sides Bikos (Vikos) Gorge Delphi • Seen as a sacred place • French moved the town that was on top of the excavation site of Delphi Athens • Biggest city in Greece (4 mil.) • Has been there for thousands of years • Mountains with shrines built to many saints • Many pollution problems • Acropolis – the height of the city Corinth Nauplion • Two hill, one with acropolis, higher one with palace • Was the capital of Greece for a short time Tolo Arcadia • Mountainous Lecture 3 12/16/12 2:25 PM Pompeii • First site excavated – led to more digging in Greek and roman worlds • Excavators only cared about making money from what they found • Vesuvius – 79 AD eruption buried Pompeii; 4000 feet high • Bay of Naples • Wasnt the only site in the area that was covered by Vesuvius – herculanium – a new modern city was built on top of herculanium • Some Greek influence in the area because they were colonizing it • Not a Greek colony, Italian settled site • Southeast of Vesuvius • Area around Vesuvius is very heavily populated – government needs to make plans for what to do if an eruption starts o Signs of eruption – earthquakes, but just because you have an earthquake doesn’t mean its about to erupt, might be 15 years later o After every eruption the look of Vesuvius changes • Should live north of volcano because the winds go south-southeast – wind has a very large effect on the effects of volcano • Town has been 3/5 excavated • City had a wall surrounding it – walled cities were common in antiquity because fear of being attacked by neighbors; had gateways • Many bodies have been found – some escaped (by sea?) • People settled in Pompeii because it has fertile land, 40m above sea level – reason for lushness is the volcanic dirt o Known for growing onions and cabbages, olives, barley • Sarno River – was a navigable river – used for trade • Probably founded from 800 BC – city started quite small and grew over the centuries; middle class town; industrial • Think there were 20000 people were living there Greek Colonization • Greece doesn’t have a lot or arable land – cant support that many people • Had a rule where a fathers land was equally split between sons – got smaller and smaller • Aristocracy owned the most of the land • Colonization happened because aristocracy moved people who weren’t useful away – to italy and turkey, southern Europe, spain • Began to colonize near bay of naples – 740 BC • Led to Greek influence in roman empire • Colonies – Syracuse, etc • Land was much more fertile in italy, more resources (led, silver) • Colonies became very wealthy • Naples started as a Greek colony Etruscans • Controlled northern half of italy • Why the greeks didn’t settle in northern italy – they would have had to battle them Naples • Many paintings of the volcano from naples because it was safe to be there – wind Vesuvius • Used to have one peak before eruption in 79 AD • News week – the big bang • Compared to mount saint Helens – blew up in 1980 o Earthquake signaled eruption o Blast covered 17-19 miles fan of destruction; continued for 9 hours; went 16 miles high • Different phases in the eruption but happened in only two days • All of the ash in the air – day became night Lecture 4 12/16/12 2:25 PM Pompeii Eruption of 1944 • Photos taken from naples because of the winds – naples usually safe from most effects of volcano • Last time that Vesuvius erupted – cause for concern because there has been some activity lately o Or could mean that its entering a state of dormancy • In 2003 there’s life growing from nutrients of eruption • Even after the big eruption it keeps spewing up ash • During second world war – lots of allied soldier stationed in the area – because of that the scientists who normally monitored the volcano couldn’t do their job meaning the eruption was unexpected, but could have been warned about it • Lightning also results from eruptions th th • Began on the 12 to 29 – top of Vesuvius changed, earthquakes • Vesuvius is pretty much as it was then Eruption of 79 • Think that the tops of buildings were still visible, then were covered by other eruptions • Vegetation starts growing on top of the ash – why it could be forgotten because its underneath everything • People think they could have a nice farm because of the volcanic fill that made the land so fertile • Herculaneum buried by mud • Pompeii buried by ash • Victims suffocated from the ash • Volcanic gases can be toxic to lung tissue – many ways to die from volcanic eruption • Magma – molten rock and gases • Eruption goes miles high and is taken by wind – comes back down as gas, lava, rocks, etc Eruption of 1906 • Many paintings of eruptions • Took place over a number of days – different phases • Bosco church • Boulders ejected from volcano • San Giuseppe – roads covered in ash • After eruption – volcano had grown and now it was 820 feet shorter • Plume cloud as from Pliny o Pliny – roman living in the 1 century AD, only first hand account of 79 AD eruption o Describes it as a plume cloud – because of Pliny calling it a plume these kinds of volcanoes go through the Pliny phase - at some point they put in a railway to take people up towards the volcano (1880) - another way to go up the volcano – sedan chair (1900) Eruption of 1822 • Eruption can effect the water – can become very rough and difficult to sail on • Tsunamis can happen • Water being “sucked away” from the shore and leaving sea life • Painting of plume cloud, lighting Eruption 1794 • In 18 thcentury there were many eruptions • Torre del Greco – a town that suffered a lot of destruction 1779 • Piranesi – artist 1767 • Pierre-Jacques Volaire - another eruption sometime in 18 thcentury - John Turner – English painter, painted eruption 1751 • from southern part of the gulf 1631 • worst eruption since 79 • 30 cm of ash on Naples – worst for Naples was in 1906 • nearby town hit with 24 ton rock Lecture 5 12/16/12 2:25 PM TA Info: Emily Ricketts [email protected] Watson 504 – Thurs 11:30 to 12:30 Pompeii - volcano had different phases in eruption – ash, ground surge, pyroclastic flow, surge, pumice - varying fallout throughout the town Timeline of Eruption • Day one,11 - minor explosion – fine ash • 12: hot gas and pumice, 30km high – umbrella of darkness • 1: showered with pumice at 15cm/hr – roofs start to collapse, ash piling up in the street, earthquake and lightning • 4am: surges of hot ash and gas • ends at 8am on day two - 7 gates from Pompeii - didn’t have addresses - triangular forum - Doric temple - see a lot of Greek architecture in Pompeii - estimated population of 20,000 in Pompeii - theatres – plays, comedies, seats 5000 - small theatre – recite poetry, give talks, seats 1200 people - test slide • temple of isis • exercise area • theatres, etc • colonnade – Greek idea • gladiator barracks Theatres • Retractable roof – canvas stretched across • Small roof to cover performers • Used the arches – crowd control • Romans invented concrete • Passageways under seating • Small theatre – Odeum o 1200 people to hear authors, etc o permanent roof Triangular Forum • roman version of Greek agora • large open area • people gather to buy and sell • built a temple in the forum – style of the columns made it Doric • colonnade Doric columns - capital looks a certain way - at the time Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD it hadn’t erupted in 700 years • people had no fear • one man was skeptical – Strabo Strabo (63 BC to 21 AD) • The rocks in the area looked burnt - In 62 AD there was a large earthquake – result of gas buildup underground (people didn’t realize this), much damage - Seneca – 600 sheep eaten up in great chasm caused by the earthquake Lecture 6 12/16/12 2:25 PM Pompeii - 63 AD – another earthquake, tremors, then all quiet • people used this quake as an excuse to rebuild their houses much builder, etc - 79 AD – August, more tremors, the springs dried up (because of pressure building up under ground) • on Aug 24, volcano blew up • account from – Younger Pliny (Nephew – 18 years old), Elder Pliny (uncle), Tacitus o elder was in charge of the roman fleet stationed at Misenum, he ended up dying in the eruption – so afterwords Tacitus wrote to the younger and asked for an account of what happened to your uncle • one letter accounting the uncles death, and then Tacitus asks for a letter about what happened to him and his mother • two surviving letters – very important The Site • Temple of Isis – one of the first buildings to be excavated o Isis was an Egyptian goddess – odd to find a temple dedicated to an Egyptian deity, but made sense because the roman religion wasn’t very helpful for people in life, so people tended to flock to some Egyptian gods instead (mystery cults) o Roman state didn’t like the cults and tried to get rid of them many times o People who flocked to the cults were often oppressed – women and slaves – because they were promised something after death o Inscription in the temple tells us that its for Isis because it was rebuilt o P. Fabris 1776 – painting account of excavation o When it was uncovered Europeans were very interested – led to a movement of paintings and statues based on what people were finding at Pompeii o Found bones still on the alter from a sacrifice and the priests had just gone to the back to have their lunch (found eggs)  When the volcano happened the priests took the valuables and ran towards the triangular forum – one priest was found crushed under a column there, some others took refuge in a building thinking they were safe o Roman temple only had steps at the front • Pompeii started as small in 800 BC – later built wall around the city How were Pompeii and Herculaneum discovered? • Eruption lasted 2 days, August 79 AD • Everything in general area wiped out – no towns, no farms, no vegetation – only 5 to 20 m of ash • Some people escaped – some people went back, but situation was hopeless • Eruption occurred when emperor Titus was ruling – he rushed over with troops to help in relief effort • Property of people who died without wills donated to relief fund • Senators appointed to see if towns could be rebuilt • Towns accepting survivors were given privileges and benefits form the roman state to encourage them to take care of the people • We assume that the troops tried to do some digging – but it was dangerous to dig the ash so in time they probably lost interest • Years passed, ground fertile again, vegetation grew • Site lost, survivors eventually died so the memory was lost also • Legends grew, names of sites forgotten: o Civitas – means city, shades of atlantis? (we all know about this place, but we don’t know if it existed) • In middle ages people wondered about these places that were “swallowed up” • After the roman empire fell – the dark age, all the learning got lost, no one read the ancient texts • The renaissance meant renewed interest in antiquities – people looked into ancient ruins, treasure, had rediscovered ancient texts (Pliny) • 1594 – first remains of Herculaneum found by chance • in 1599 an architect was digging a new channel for the Sarno River found remains and even an inscription (“Pompeis”) – had found Pompeii but didn’t realize it o channel not very deep, so were only at the very tops of buildings, digging did not continue • Herculaneum was the first site to be found o In 1709 – 1710 Emanuele Maurizio of Elboeuf, Prince of Lorraine wanted to build himself a villa. Before a peasant had dug a well and found statuary o Prince bought the land, dug 90 ft and tunnels from there. Lots of statuary, etc found – things he could make money from o Austrians in control of area, so stuff shipped back to Vienna for their palaces. Was pure treasure hunting – no thought of what the things meant Lecture 7 12/16/12 2:25 PM Pompeii - by 1716 Elboeuf transferred and digging stopped (Vesuvius active again) rd - by 1738, Charles 3 of Spain(now ruling south italy) ordered digging resumed, using old tunnels (dangerous) - found an inscription naming Herculaneum, still hadn’t found anything about Pompeii - Man in charge: Rocco Gioacchino de Alcubierre 1748-1780 (military engineer) – hired by Charles for sole purpose: to supply the Spanish court with masterpieces (work done in secret) • wouldn’t let anyone come to the site, had to get special permit and couldn’t do any drawings, etc so word wouldn’t get out – got out anyway because people did drawings from memory - in 1748 dig began at site of Pompeii to supply Spanish court with beautiful art, but soon stopped (no beautiful art found) and went to Herculaneum instead – didn’t care about the site and how theyre excavating the site - Carl Weber in charge overall by 1750. Better methods (more modern)! Instead of random holes, dig should be coordinated, areas should be dug systematically and where possible, things shouldn’t be left in situ (meaning leave things where you found them because they are part of the history, step forward in thinking) - Weber – dig along streets, enter houses by front door (not hole punched through wall) • also made plans and sketches of what you were doing, as you are digging – keeps everything in context because archaeology tends to be very disruptive by nature –we don’t know how often these sketches were made - by 1754 work shifted to Pompeii area, easier than dig at Herculaneum (more difficult because depth and volcanic lava) • work chaotic, paintings ripped from walls, art “not good enough” was destroyed • in 1763 they finally found an inscription naming Pompeii – legends were true Johan Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) • Great scholar of ancient art • Very critical of excavations – wrote letter “a critical account of the situation destruction of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabia” • “the incompetence of this man, who had as much to do with antiquity as the moon with shrimp, as the Italian proverb has it, has caused the loss of many beautiful things” (1762) from Winckelmann about alsubieri • his complaints: o they were taking things from the site without recording them o work too slow, not enough workmen (almost a contradiction to first complaint) – thought they weren’t uncovering the site fast enough • was murdered - 1785 - people starting to make plans of excavations - 1780 – Herculaneum – nature of the finds caused them a lot of trouble, used convicts, etc because they needed more workmen, these people hadn’t been trained and didn’t care, used gunpowder in the process to speed it up • the finds brought to museum in Naples, king and queen watching (painting) William Gell (1777-1836) • Englishmen who went to the site and ended up writing a sort of guide book to the excavation sites and what he had seen there • “Pompeiana” 2 volumes, first in 1817-1818, later edition in 1832 o illustrated it by what he saw, some of them fanciful to make it look complete o different views at different places, showing the condition of sites • prompted people from the English speaking world to go see the remains – more tourism - painting – Paul Alfred deCurzon, Dream in the Ruins of Pompeii (1866) – fanciful, weird picture with the remains uncovered, with people dressed as ancient standing in the ruins of their own houses Giuseppe Fiorelli (1823-1896) • Played a large role in the excavations at Pompeii • Trained as a lawyer and numismatist (study coins) • Worked in Naples museum – studying coins, etc • Transferred to Pompeii to be inspector of the dig • He accused the site director of bribery and corruption o Then director accused Fiorelli of political crimes – he ended up being charged and going to prison for 10 months • Eventually appointed inspector again in 1860 and in charge of excavation in 1863 (director) • Saw Pompeii as cultural heritage, the site was important, not necessarily what was in the buildings, but the buildings themselves – goal of excavators determined how they dig • Italy is now unified, Pompeii part of their past – became more important, as Italians they wanted to claim Italy as their own and because they had always been there • Site opened to visitors for fee (not just nobles) – more people could enjoy the site • Believed site as like a museum – preserve what you have, what you find • Principles: o Keep proper records of everything o Dig systematically – try to uncover inside of the building first, make sure the wall was stable, then uncover outside so the wall wouldn’t fall down • Keep proper spoil heaps – all the stuff you dig out that isn’t part of the dig; they’re important themselves but need to be kept away from the work • Set up school to train archaeologists – no more amateurs (modern idea) • To locate buildings – town divided up into regions (insulae) like a modern town – numbered city blocks - painting – Eduard Alexandre Sain (1865) – workers at Pompeii Lecture 8 12/16/12 2:25 PM - Fiorelli – important how he felt about the site, what he thought the site was being (museum) - House of the Vettii (1894) - Street of Abundance (1910) – was the main shopping street of the town, led to forum, made it popular for dignitaries come to see the sites - people were caught completely off guard, found with belongings - people began running when the eruption started, then went dark with the cloud and many were trampled – a lot of people must have escaped because there hasn’t been as many bodies within town – some bodies found outside of town, people could have escaped on their boats - those who waited in their houses either died from asphyxiation from the ash, others from the hot gases, hit with collapsing objects, people went up and died from hot surge - baby found in its crib, can sometimes see expressions on peoples faces, some animals have been found - we have all of these bodies because Fiorelli developed a method of plaster casting • body covered with ash, formed a sort of case around the body • make a hole in the ash, pour plaster into cavity that would fill the area • chipped away at the ash around it, then left with the body imprint - find groups of families - a man sort of sitting when he died, man covering his face - dog that had been left chained in the house, contorted - haven’t found many animals, sixth sense? Herculaneum • No bodies found when it was excavated until 1982 – found hundreds of bodies in boat houses • Can only find skeletons, cant use plaster method because of the lava – very difficult to remove the bodies, pour water, takes very long time, bones are very brittle will fall apart in your hands almost • Bodies suffered more here because of the hot surge that was worse here than at Pompeii – pretty instantaneous - Fiorelli’s plaster method used for other organic things • wooden furniture, trees, plants • still use his method today - forum – heart of the town, idea for forum goes back to the Greek’s agora, large, open area; where people would buy and sell; became commercial center, political center, religious center • never roofed • agoraphobia – fear of open space • top of forum – capitolium – temple dedicated to the capital line trio – Jupiter, juno and Minerva; north end; looks over whole forum, shows importance of gods • left of forum – forum holitorium – marketplace for grains, cereals, lentils, etc • temple of Apollo – main temple before the capitolium; has its own little precinct; know its Apollo because statue • basilica – called that because it reminded people of a basilica; lockhorts – legal proceedings • three buildings at bottom – one in middle is curia; take all three and call them the municipal buildings; could be put up by wealthy people • comitium - election hall; think this is where they went to vote, not roofed, not really sure if that’s what it was used for • eumachia building – name of priestess who built the building; some people think it has to do with the dying of clothes • temple of Vespasian – emperor Vespasian ruled form 69 to 79, died before Vesuvius erupted, son was Titus, customary to deify the emperor • temple of the lares – lares were deities (household), protector of the people • macellum – the market, meat and fish market Lecture 9 12/16/12 2:25 PM Pompeii Remains Forum • Colonnade • Open, unroofed space Basilica • Columns mirror the forum columns • Used for legal proceedings, business, trials, auctions? • Assume it had to do with laws and business Macellum • Meat and fish market • Had stalls for people to sell things Capitolium • Temple to three gods: Jupiter, juno, Minerva Temple to Apollo • Was most important building until capitolium was built • Surrounded by columns • Alter, stairs, porch, room • Statue of Apollo - had speed bumps, also used as stepping stones - public fountains – some people had water pumped into their houses, but many people had to get their water from the fountains - street of abundance – various shops on both sides of the street, we know there were two storey buildings because shop owners liked to live above their shops - thermopolium (popina) bar – serving food and (hot – “thermo”) drinks, have a ledge with sunken pots, some small like fast food and some bigger with seating - old bakeries, other shops Arch of Caligula • Arches put up by emperors to honor themselves • Placed along streets, near corners • To commemorate a big event or victory Herculaneum Gate • People buried outside of the gates Street of Tombs • Romans were cremated • Tombs could be quite lavish, only held ashes, was a sign of wealth, to honor their ancestors Stabian Baths • North and south sections – one part for men and one for women • In smaller baths there were separate times for men and women • Apodyterium – changing room • Tepidarium – warm room, transition from outdoors to really hot room • Palestra – exercise space • Calidarium – hot room • Frigidarium – cold room • Pool – piscina • Furnaces – raised floors with fire under them and into the walls • Hypocaust Roman House • Androne – the mans room • Atrium – room you entered, open area, hole in the ceiling (compluvium) above to let in air, sun, rain water that collected in a depression (impluvium) with a pipe that brought it to a cistern • Tablinum • Hortus – garden behind the house, called peristyle because there were columns, could have been roofed • Exedra – like an outdoor kitchen Lecture 10 12/16/12 2:25 PM Lecture 11 12/16/12 2:25 PM Schliemann 1: Early years, the search for troy begins - what were his goals? Why was he excavating troy? – impacted results of excavation - he already has the background from Pompeii to work off of in his own work - heinrich Schliemann – father of archaeology- believed that you could find places that were buried if you dug them up, if Pompeii existed then there must be other places - discovered an entire era of Greek history – the bronze age - dug at troy, Mycenae (Greek mainland), Tiryns th - in 19 century classicists studied great authors – Aeschylus, Sophocles, etc and great architecture – Parthenon, etc • essentially studying 4/5 century BC - homer one such author: Illiad (takes place during the Trojan war), Odyssey (takes place after the war) (Achilles, Agamemnon (leader of Greek forces), Menelaus, Patroclus, Odysseus, Hector, Priam (king of Trojans), …) • Illiad - Trojan war – took place between Greece and troy, lasted 10 years, Greek went to war because Paris (Trojan) took Helen (Greek) wife of Menelaus • Odyssey – story of Odysseus trying to make it back to Greece, takes 10 years to get back, gone for 20 years; when he gets home he has a 20 year old dog waiting for him • Two books are works of fiction – the scholars insisted it was fiction, troy could not exist • Schliemann proved the classicists wrong – these places did exist - classical – Hellenistic period 500-30 BC - homer wrote during c. 700 - bronze age – 3300-1100 BC • Trojan war thought to have happened in late part of the bronze age Trojan War • Must have occurred in Turkey, went east across the Aegean Sea Situation Before Schliemann • Many lured by homer’s tales. Any truth to the legends? After all, Pompeii had been legend too • Homer: troy near Dardanelles, was great walled citadel; to southeast was Mount Ida, 2 islands offshore; Samothrace further away, but troy was visible from it • Also two rivers near it: Scamander and simois; also mentions great plains below troy • In homer, troy is also called Illion – in classical and Hellenistic periods, place called Illion (Illium Novum) in Northwest Turkey. Ancient visitors thought this – ancient Illios. Remains of C and H periods o Just because theyre based on the same name doesn’t mean theyre the same place o The remains they found were from their own period • In renaissance, visitors to area often shown remains said to be Illion. Several places claimed the title • Robert Wood – first to study area properly, using homer as guide (1742, 1750-51). Believed troy really existed • Problem: topography changed – many people thought that troy had to be near the coast, but the coastline had changed a lot sine antiquity – places had been filled in • Rivers had changed their course somewhat, plains much bigger, etc • In late 18 thc. French ambassador at Constantinople got survey done by J.B. Chevalier • Troy thought to be at Bunarbaschi • Was acropolis, had springs nearby (as troy) • Cartographer for survey (F. Kauffer) noted place with ancient remains (Hisarlik) • Edward Clarke identified Hisarlik as Illium Novum (C and H era city) • W. Gell published this in Topography of Troy in 1804 • Two groups of people – some believed troy existed and others insisted it didn’t exist and they would never find it • Frank Calvert (1828-1908) – Englishmen, diplomat based in turkey, had brother Fred; had business and agricultural interests o Family owned property partly on Hisarlik o Fred also owned property (near Bunarbashi): springs, etc so maybe this was troy o Frank excavated various sites, including Bunarbashi o Found remains at Hisarlik so convinced that it was troy o Frank appealed to C. Newton of BM (British museum): help pay for dig? But BM refused o 1865 bought part of mound: dug part of C and H ruin s o not enough money or time o enter Schliemann! Schliemann • Born January 6, 1822 • Autobiography in Illios – book • Born in eastern Germany – Neubuckow • Father was a Lutheran pastor, family moved to Ankershagen • Told people he was born in Ankershagen – when applying for passports, etc – if it was convenient he would lie Lecture 12 12/16/12 2:25 PM Schliemann: His Quest Begins th • Mother died when he was 9 years old – died giving birth to her 9 child (1831) • Father had his own troubles, rumours about his behavior (affairs, spending church money), resigned in 1832 • Schliemann inspired by local legends • Went to live with his uncle (for 3 or 4 years) after his mother died • 1836 – apprenticed as grocer • loved ancient Greece • no jobs, so he tried to go to Colombia. Shipwrecked off the coast of Holland • had a gift for languages – English, French, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, Portuguese – later latin and Greek • 1844 – job as bookkeeper in trading company, sent to St. Petersburg (Russia) in 1846 • made lots of money trading commodities • brother died in 1850 in gold rush • went to California from sept 1851-april 1852. Bought gold dust from the mines and sold it to the bank – made a fortune, how much he made depended on the weight of the gold • claims US citizen in 1850. Lied to cover up other fraud • while in the US he claims in his memoires that he interviewed the presidents of US and Panama • 1852 – quickly left to the States – says it was because of a health problem – real issue had to do with his banking partner: Schliemann was lying about the weight of the gold, making more money than he should have • he went back to st. Petersburg • proposed by letter to 2 women • Katerina Lyshin accepted, married in 1852 – had a son and 2 daughters • Not a happy marriage – more concerned with his business deals and cared less about family • Made fortune in Crimean War selling saltpeter (part of gunpowder) • 1858-9 – went to places like Egypt, Greece, near east, spain to see the ancient sites • still no mention of troy • 1864-66 more travels all over the world • 1866 enrolled at Sorbonne (university in paris) intending to write his Ph.D. on ancient Greece • wife stayed in Russia, finally divorced her in 1869 • to get his divorce he needed to prove he was a US citizen – needed to be a resident for 5 years to be the citizen • paid someone to swear he had been a resident for 5 years – lie • got citizenship by fraud • later claimed he became a citizen in 1850 – pattern of lying • 3 days after he got his citizenship he filed for divorce – to get your divorce in the state you had to live there for a year – paid someone to testify he had been there • had to prove his marriage was a failure – in court, his wife’s letter we used as evidence – letters were written in Russian so he translated them the way he wanted • got his Ph.D. in ancient Greek – claimed he wrote it in ancient Greek – was actually in French – still became “Dr. Schliemann” • more lies: great San Francisco fire, may 4-5 1851 – wrote a vivid account of being in a hotel and barely being able to survive – wasn’t even in San Francisco, was somewhere else in California – this diary entry was added to his diary later on • 1868 – to Rome, Pompeii – thought Fiorelli was going too slow • also in Athens – heard someone talk about bunarbaschi as possible ancient troy – Schliemann was convinced this was correct, based on nothing • interested in troy really began in 1868 (over 40 years old) • also went to Ithaca – home of Odysseus – excavated to see if it really was there • not great success but was important • 1868 he also went to Mycenae • Pausanias (lived in 2 c. AD) says he saw tomb of Agamemnon, etc – wrote a tour guide for Greece – important to Schli. Because this meant Agamemnon must have lived • Thought burials inside walls but scholars thought not – “no doubt excavations could recover them” – Schli. • He was eager to find troy • Dig at bunarbaschi for 2 days – decided it was not troy • Calvert said Hisarlik was sit of troy – met with Schli. • Schli was convinced – jumped to conclusions • 1868 – “I am now quite decided to dig away the whole artificial mound of Hisarlik” – credited Calvert for identifying the site o artificial mound – because from human habitation • life now devoted to Homer, finding troy, proving classicists wrong • had to find a Greek wife now – how to find one?: wrote to a Russian priest who was now archbishop in Athens asking for a recommendation for a woman to marry – Sophia Engastromenos • he was 47 and she was 16 – her family didn’t care because he had money sept 1869 married Lecture 13 12/16/12 2:25 PM Midterm • Lots of Pompeii slides • Who, what, where, why, etc Schleimann and Troy • April 10, 1870 – Schli began digging at Hisarlik – found walls that he thought were the palace or temple of King Priam’s citadel • He didn’t apply for a permit – “firman” o Will allow conditions, etc • Authorities stopped him 10 days after he started the dig – april 20 – not considered his first proper, legal dig • First dig began oct 11 to nov 24, 1871 – got a permit • In his diaries he says that Sophia was with him the whole dig season, was a lie • Plan: to dig a trench though the middle of the mound to find king priam’s palace • Basic principle of stratigraphy understood but sure that Homeric Troy at bottom of mound – levels of settlements formed by human habitation – thought that the mound was the result of human habitation – kings priam’s troy is at the bottom of the mound (Trojan war era) • “hills on which in the course of thousands of years, new buildings have been continually erected on the site of former buildings, gain considerable circumference and height” • “to reach the ruins of the palaces of priam and his sons it is necessary to remove the entire part of the hill” – could be removing many things that he thinks aren’t important • top layer is classical, Hellenistic ruins of illium novum; bottom layer is Homeric troy – didn’t think that Homeric troy was anywhere higher • mound very complex; idea to dig down as quickly as possible, removing upper layers to get down to bottom • 80 workmen at first, up to 160 – lots of stuff found, had no idea of date of any of it, stratigraphy very difficult • 3 conditions of firman (permit) o all finds would be divided – ½ to the ottoman government, ½ to schli o uncovered ruins of buildings to be left as they were found o all expenses were to be borne by schli • schli was baffled by his finds – “owl faced” or “owl headed” because he was relating everything to homer o homer refered to Athena as “glaukopis” which schli thought meant “owl faced” really meant bright-eyed • “I therefore sinder it necessary to describe everything as minutely as possible in the hope that oe of other od my honored colleges will be able to give me an explanation of the points which are obscure to me” • so, described finds in detail, recorded location, noted depth • 1871 – trench • got another permit fr
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