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Classical Studies
CLST 129
Anne Foley

Jan 9 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM - April 11-12, 2003: looting of Baghdad Museum  burning and looting of national archives in Iraq - Ur (archaeological site) becomes army base in April 2003  supposedly where Abraham was born – significant to three major religions  Ziggurt – type of building, stepped  A “big dig” run jointly by Oxford and UPenn 1922 o Found the standard of Ur (2600-2400 BC) – scenes of military, the other side shows the same people in peace times - Warka Vase – Sumerian from 3200-3000 BC  eventually recovered after being looted from museum, came back severely damaged - Neolithic revolution, 10000 BC– when people gave up a pastoral lifestyle, first happened in Mesopotamia (fertile crescent)  domesticated animals, grew crops  cats and dogs first domesticated, companion creatures  led to math, calendars, religion, buildings, hierarchical society - lots of archaeology in Iraq, weren’t protected until the cards were made - convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict – united nations 1954 – US and UK didn’t sign  lack of vision for world heritage at the government level Jan 14 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Humayma – Jordan  5 byzantine churches  mosque built by nobles from mecca – Abbasid family o family spearhead a conspiracy that overthrows the ruling family and then the Abbasid family takes over How antiquities were conceptualized in the past How archaeology was done in the past Famous people who had an interest in the past and did something about it King Nabonidus of Babylon – from 555 to 539 BC  Lived in a place were people had been living for 100s of years before him so there were remains of other structures around him  Ordered his people to dig beneath the foundation of one of the ancient temples because he wanted to learn more about the temple – when it had been built, by who, etc o They found an inscription with told about an old hymn about the king who built the temple and other objects – put them into a museum Helena and the True Cross  Mother of the emperor Constantine – the first roman emperor to convert to Christianity and mother converted before he did  She felt a need to go to Jerusalem to seek out the cross on which Jesus had been crucified (early 4 thcentury)  Was attracted by a plant – takes it as a religious sign and has her servants dig there and they find the cross that had been buried there  She has it put on display for other Christian pilgrims to see  Becomes a saint because of this  Important that she was interested in an ancient artifact and sought it out - these two cases were people seeking these things out for their own interest, collectors - three categories: th th  collection – 14 century to late 19 century  classification – late 19hcentury to 1940s  explanation – 1950s to today Collection phase  Started in western Europe and at this time because of the renaissance  Kings collecting – at first just what’s in their territory  Looting o Tomb opening at Nola – 1790  No interest in the context – only interested in the artifacts, bodies were ignored, broken objects thrown away, things that weren’t decorated thrown away  Kings and governments start to establish museums – change in focus in society, instead of the kings keeping everything to themselves there is a need to educate all the members of society  Sir William Hamilton – British ambassador to the king of the two sicilies – ambassador needed because a lot of British visitors to the region, on the side he is an active collector o He starts as a private collector but because he is an ambassador and in the bay of Naples he is creating a very good collection – then thinks the objects shouldn’t just be in his collection and convinces British government to buy some of his collection to add to the museum o Before him their were no antiquities in the British museum o Portland Vase – o Wedgewood movement and factory was based on copying the type of imagery of the Portland vase in porcelain  Napoleon – invades Egypt because of imperialism and fights between him and Britain – he wants to interrupt trade patterns from India o Battle of the pyramids o Takes 175 scholars with him in addition to soldiers – they collected knowledge, published 21 books about Egypt and explained everything  Measured the sphinx  Learned about mummies  Rosetta stone – now in the British museum because the British took it from the French when they defeated napoleon  Lord Elgin – British ambassador to ottoman empire o Had great access to finds o Has more access than normal because he is an ambassador of an allied nation – allies because ottoman wanted to be allied with the British since they were against the French o Arranges to bring back some Greek objects o Goes too far and takes some things off of the Parthenon Jan 16 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Lord Elgin – takes things from Parthenon, erechtheion, and temple of Athena nike back to Britain  Had greater access  Greek and roman antiquities weren’t valued by the ottomans  Elgin only supposed to be picking up broken pieces on the ground – takes parts from the frieze o 12 sculptures o 56 slabs from the frieze o 15 slabs form the metipiece?  Idea that your own country gains prestige by having antiquities form other places  Some people in Britain were complaining to parliament that elgin had taken one of the most important monuments and destroyed it  Elgin spurred on the competition for other places to bring back antiquities to their museums  People making drawings, descriptions, etc by going to places and recording what is going on Jean Louis Burckhardt  Finds Petra 1812  Time of fierce competition between states  Publishes what he finds, starts and interest in other people to travel to this area  Many of these places were covered and forgotten so they were in very good condition Babylon, Iraq th  Late 19 century there’s excavation projects by states  Countries start to get permissions to take things Thomas Jefferson  Became curious about some mounds that existed throughout the region  Carried out an excavation in Virginia  Burial sites, remains were all native Americans Classification phase  Changes in the way people think about the past  Chronology of the world based on the bible (as determined by 17 th century archbishop James Ussher) o 4004 BC – creation o 2348 BC – flood and Noah’s ark o 1921 BC – gods call to Abraham o 1491 BC – exodus from Egypt o 1012 BC – founding of the temple in Jerusalem o 586 BC – destruction of Jerusalem and beginning of the Babylonian captivity o 4 BC – the birth of Jesus (because Herod the Great died in 4BC)  world will end in 1997  people were noticing that erosion was happening, different types of rock that made up the side of hills  key dates in geology o 1785 – James Hutton (father of geology) argues that the earth must be much older than previously supposed in order to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea which in turn were raised up to become dry land o 1811 – geurge cuvier and alexandre brongniart inspired by cuvier’s discovery of fossil elephant bones in paris, published an explanation of the antiquity of the earth and to prove their case for the earths age, they formulated the principle of stratigraphic succession of the layers of the earth o 1830 – sir charles lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in which he promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism. This theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the earths history and are still occurring today  subsequent… o 1822 – being to translate the hieroglyphics from the rosetta stone – now have the ability to translate hieroglyphics from other Egyptian things  cuniform tablets – from Mesopotamia  Christian Thomsen – national museum of denmark o Classifies his things according to times: three age system (1836)  Stone age – very little or nothing known of metals  Bronze age – bronze metallurgy; no iron tools  Iron age – iron replaced bronze for tool use  Jacques Boucher de Perthes 1841 o Finds a layer with remains of humans, tools, and extinct animals  Darwin 1859 – Origin of Species o Plants and animals change slowly over time – evolution  Typology – form of artifact changes over time as a result of environmental forces act on it Jan 18 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Classification stage  Interest in accurately classifying the grouping antiquities by the time periods (chronological classification)  Work done by professional archaeologists  To classify something you need to know where it was in the soil layers – stratigraphy o Typology – evolution of a thing o Description  Big digs o Ur, Iraq – run jointly o British museum at Tell of Carchemish o German excavations at Olympia  Flinders Petrie – set the standards for archaeologist who came after him, paid meticulous attention to the finds  Recording artifacts, not paying attention to seeds, animal bones, small pieces, etc  Culture-historical approach – an approach to archaeological interpretation that used the procedure of the traditional historian (including emphasis on specific circumstances elaborated with rich detail and processes of inductive reasoning) – trying to find evidence for what is already known in history  By end of WW2 o Changes in economies of western Europe are devastated – don’t have the money for big digs o Rising discontent in countries where western powers were perceived to have too much influence o Shift in attitudes – don’t want outside archaeologists coming in o Countries like Greece and Italy no longer as welcoming to foreign archaeologists o Science – computers, etc; developments used by north American archaeologists in their techniques – don’t like the historical perspective, use science perspective Explanation phase  New archaeology/ processual archaeology o An approach that argued for an explicitly scientific framework of archaeological method and theory, with hypotheses rigorously tested as the proper basis for explanation rather than simply description o Started by Americans  Culture process was emphasized in the 1960s and 70s – the new archaeology emphasized deductive reasoning, quantitative methods, and a search for general laws and process  Archaeology post WW2 – growth and confidence followed by doubt and reassessment (post-processual)  Post processual – importance of difference in interpretation o The context is important Jan 23 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Basic questions about human societies  Economy – the means used to obtain resources for maintenance and growth  Organization – within and between societies ex: marriage, etc o Ex: Mayan society – hierarchy: kings, nobles and priests, craftsman, peasants  can tell because differences in dress, inscriptions o Ex: Ur society – hierarchy  king appears bigger than everyone, nobles are smaller than the king but bigger than the people who are waiting on them  Male dominated society – don’t see any women of equal status being shown o Nabataean society – coin shows king and queen  of equal rank o Tomb markings  ideology – societies’ explanations for human, natural, and supernatural relationships as reflected in their beliefs and rituals – trying to find and explanation for events that don’t make sense to them Classification of societies  State – most complex, large group 20,000 or more; class based hierarchy with king; professional armies; centralized bureaucracy; laws; cities, towns, frontier defenses, roads; separate priestly class; pantheistic/monotheistic religion; palaces, temples, and other public buildings  Chieftain  Sedentary  Mobile hunter gatherers – less than 100 people in one group; egalitarian, informal leadership; hunting and gathering; temporary camps; shamans; temporary shelters - differ in total numbers, social organization, economic organization, settlement pattern, religious organization, architecture ideology – societies’ explanations for human, natural, and supernatural relationships as reflected in their beliefs and rituals – trying to find an explanation for events that don’t make sense to them  ways of interacting with the unknown  plastered skulls 7000 BC, Jericho Palestine – filled in wholes with plaster and inserted shells archaeology is – the study of our human past using material remains that have survived  material culture – buildings, tools, and other artifacts that constitute the material remains of former societies  archaeological record – portion of the material culture and other debris generated by people that is preserved through time and susceptible to archaeological recovery and study  ecofact – natural material used or transported by humans or relevant for understanding their activities (ex: a pebble or boulder)  artifact – (artefact) anything made or modified by human agency (chipped stone tool)  feature – non-portable artifact (hearth, tomb) made by humans but they cant take it anywhere else, not meant to be moved  site – accumulations of artifacts, ecofacts, and features, representing the places where people lived or carried out certain activities; vary in size o ex: farmstead, city, sanctuary, campsite  activity area – location of specific tasks or behaviors focused on a single or limited purpose within a site o ex: hide tanning area, kitchen within palace  assemblage – related set of different things. Individual definitions depend on scale and context o ex: group of artifacts recovered from a stratum (soil layer) or a site; or all the artifacts and features from an archaeological culture - stratification – deposition of artifacts/ecofacts occurs in discreet 3- dimensional units called strata (stratum)  buildup of strata results in stratification  study of the buildup of layers called stratigraphy  law of association – artifacts/ecofacts found in the same stratum share a depositional history  law of superposition – a stratum that wholly or partly overlies another was deposited later than it  provenance – objects place of discovery or origin - archaeologists study context, separates them from anyone else who goes to a site; what can the context tell us about ancient life  context – place and association among archaeological materials and the situation in which they occur  in situ – an object in its original position of discard or deposition, in place, primary context Jan 30 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Desert Kites – discovered by pilots in 1920s  Found because of aerial surveys  How big is it? – heads were from 5200 meters in diameter; tails vary from 100 meters to a kilometer  What is it? – shown in an ancient petroglyph (art, carving); humans are involved in activity like herding; wild animals; ancient language o They're put on slight hills; animals cant see the trap ahead o Plane landed and photographed from another plane above, to get scale, - roman road  Lejjun – site where there was a roman legionary camp Three types of sites found by aerial survey  Shadow site – ground is uneven, when you go into the sky during right times you’ll see shadows; anomalies stand out  Soil site - Flat surface that has been plowed – plowing has scattered remains o Ex: over wall – scattered stone  Crop marked site – been plowed and planted crop; because of what is beneath the ground the crop will grow differently over remains - Chew Green, Northumberland, UK – remains of several different encampments, some are roman marching camps; shadow site  where the sun is important because tells you about features - Standlake, Oxfordshire, UK – soil site; different colors in the soil on the surface types of aerial photographs  oblique photo – taken up to 90 degrees, side view from the plane, gives a better idea for context  vertical photo – taken straight down from the plane, more important for maps or site plans; easier to do a series with a balloon rather than a plane - can use images to test hypotheses Feb 4 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM Survey of Metaponto’s Chora  City and associated territory  Survey to find a site - ancient cisterns – Nabatean  use runoff  in ancient times it would have been more vibrant because there would have been a working aqueduct always bringing fresh water in o better than cistern water because that water has many other things in it from running across the land  going downhill, aqueduct winds back and forth because you don’t want rushing water down the hill and tried to keep them on a steady grade over the entirety of the aqueduct to keep it at a steady pace – it will erode if it goes too fast  27 km aqueduct – measure by using a measuring wheel o electronic distance meter – shooting laser or light beam to measure distance between operator and person standing elsewhere with a reflector  ancient dam - site survey – stratified systematic 2% sample  looking at concentrations of types of finds in certain areas  where things are spread out – hypothesized that its was homes  where things are concentrated – were production areas Feb 6 1/9/2013 7:25:00 AM exam – 50 to 60 slides on moodle  up to end of survey  11 slides with 5 to 6 multiple choice questions sub-surface survey  allow a glimpse of what’s under the ground without actually excavating  semi-destructive  acoustic/seismic probing – hit the ground with a mallet, depending on what’s under the ground the mallet will produce a different sound  resistance probing – put a probe into the ground, depending on level of resistance tells you if something is there; used by grave robbers  augering – use a metal probe, the auger records the stratigraphy of the soil, it is hollow and takes a sample  petra garden and pool complex o radar study – red = stone, blue and green = soil o large areas of just soil important – hypothesized a garden with some structures in it o took samples of the soil – found nutrients and additives to the soil o relatively cheap and non-time consuming way to learn about the area  geophysical prospection – weren’t possible until WW2 scientific advancement to look under the surface; really weren’t able to use until the last 15 years because of computers and printers o electrical resistivity – measures the resistance of sub-soil to the passage of an electrical current; based on the principle that the damper the soil is the more easily it can conduct electricity, current passes quickly through damp dirt but moves slowly through stone walls o magnetometry – measure variation in the sub-soils magnetic field; earth has a magnetic field; there are aspects to soil that can take on a magnetic charge which doesn’t usually happen unless something has happened to make them abnormal (ex: heating it to a very high temperature will cause it to align with a magnetic field, like in a kiln, etc) meaning there will be an anomaly in the soil; there are also certain things that have a magnetic charge (ex: iron); primary context (things in situ) and secondary context (waste piles)  a – rough data, peaks and troughs; strong plus and minus signs  b – taking raw data and cleaning it by making peaks dark and troughs white  c and d – two further stages of cleaning o types of magnetometry  proton magnetometer – takes reading of absolute magnetic field on a grid at a given point – push a button  proton gradiometer – two separate detectors, measures relative difference between two readings with different heights above the ground – easier to operate, less s
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