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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 129

Term One August-30-12 5:05 PM Day 7: Pompeii, History of the excavations  1716, prince elbouef transferred and digging stopped after about 6 years (Vesuvius active again)  1738 Charles III of Spain (now ruling south italy) ordered digging resumed, using old tunnels (dangerous) o Found inscription naming Herculaneum  An in charge: Rocco Giacchino de Alcubierre: 1748-1780 (military engineer) o Aim: to supply king with great art; work done in secret o Secret: b/c king saw this as his private property and didn’t want other ppl involved insight to take treasures he felt was his o He wouldn’t let anyone come to site unless he already knew them as worker, to go to site had to have special permit to go and no notes could be taken while at site o As word got out more and more ppl wanted to see site  1748 dig began at site of Pompeii to supply Spanish court w/ beautiful art o Soon stoped b/c no art was found and went to Herculaneum instead o They didn’t care about the site only wanted treasure  Carl Weber in charge overall y 1750 o Better methods o Coordinated digs instead of random holes o Area should be dug systematically o Things should be left in situ (where they were found) o Important step forward in thinking o Systematically= dig along streets, enter houses bu front door; not a hole in a wall o Made proper plans and sketches: keeps everything in context; don’t know how the plans were made/when  1754: wok shifted to Pompeii: easier to dig ten Herculaneum o Work is chaotic, paintings ripped from walls, art 'not good' enough destroyed  1763: inscription naming Pompeii, legends true after all  Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) didn’t like what he saw at Pompeii and Herculaneum o Art historian o Really understood art o Very critical of excavation: wrote letters to newspapers in Europe about the destruction of the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabia o His complaints:  were taking things w/out recording them  Work too slow, not enough men o Ended up getting murdered  1785: start to make plans about what they are doing  1780: Herculaneum, lots of trouble b/c of the type of eruption. Convicts were used to excavate the site. o Gunpowder used to make progress faster, possible loss of other things  Herculaneum finds brought to museum in Naples by king and queen.  William Gell (1777-836) o Wrote a guide book to pompeii o 2 editions o Very influential: english speaking world got to know about pompeii o Illustration very fanciful o Good illustartion of how the buildings looked at the time  Giuseppe Fiorelli (1823-1896) o Trained as a lawyer and numismatist(coin) o Worked in Naples museum studying coins o Transferred to Pompeii to be inspector of dig o Accused director of bribery, corruption o Director accused Fiorelli of political crimes o Went to prison for 10 months o Eventually appointed as inspector again in 1860, o in charge by 1863 o Saw Pompeii as cultural heritage (not what was in the buildings but the buildings themselves) o Italy now unified, Pompeii part of their past o Site opened to visitors for fee (not just nobles) beginning of pompeii as a tourist site o Directed dig form 1863-1875 o Believed site was like a museum so you couldn’t just destroy things o Principles:  Keep proper records  Dig systematically  Keep proper spoil heaps( everything that isn't part of archaeological dig, ash, pumus ect.)  More effective o Set up schools to train archaeologists: no more amateurs o To locate buildings; town divided into regions like a modern town (each city block was an insulae (island)) Lecture: Day 8 The last days of Pompeii  1894: House of Vettii; very popular  1910: Street of Abundance main shopping street o Part of street cleared o Popular among dignitaries and celebrities  Big concern at site is preserving what we already found o Restoration done on art at the walls People of pompeii  No warning of eruption-completely of guard  Ppl are trampled  Lots of people must of escaped town, more bodies could be found in area around town  Ppl left on boats right away and survived  Some stayed behind and hid in house, died  Ppl hit with falling debries  Bodies found at 3 diff levels: basment, street level, and at a second story level  Bodies found as they died: w/ expression, what position they died in ect  All levels of society found  Fiorelii develped plaster casting o Ash formed case around body o Plaster of paris(used for casts) inorder to see the bodies as they were  Able to look at human nature  Hot gases could cause muslce contraction or cause the body to freeze: bodies would freeze in odd psitions  Dog left in house chained  2000 bodies found and still being found Other remains  Forum after time became cener of pompeii, political, cultural ect  Forum never roofed to big  Buildings suronding forum would have been roofed  Temple at top end of forum  Two temples within the foroum  Capitolium: temple dedicated to the capitiline trio; jupiter, juno, minerva o Over looks entire forum  Forum Holitrium: for grain cearel, lentils, beans  Temple of Apollo: main temple before capitolium, has its own presinc o Know its apollo because of statue  Basilica: law courts of pompeii, occasionlaly actions would be held  Curia: call them municiple offices, not sure what there for  Comitium: election hall, not sure what building for, not roofed  Eumachia Building: built by priestress, dedicated to her but not sure what building for o Possible used for clothing dying  Temple of Vespasian: ruled 69-79 died before erruption, Titus's father o Library before becoming temple  Temple off the Lares: Household deities, on larger scale protector of ppl Macellum: fish and meat market  Herculaneum  Town right on water  No bodies found originaly  1982: when opened up boat houses, hundreds and hundreds of bodies were find  We have skeletons b/c of the lava dosen't allow for plaster method to be used  Archaeologists have great difficulty removing the bodies; bones are brittle  Ppl died at herculanium by intense heat brain and organs explode  By studying bones able to learn about the health of the skeleton, how old they were, what aliments they had/ sex of people o Had good teeth  Plaster of paris can be used o anything organic (wood furniture, were trees were ect) Lecture Day 9: Pompeii; the remains  Lining 3 sides of forum coloumineds: cover rows of columns 2 stories, provides shade o After the eruption you would of only seen the tops of the columns  Basilica, long and rectangular  Columns in basilica match those in the forum; possibly for legal prossedings or auctions  Macellum: stalls, and shrines for selling goods and honoring gods, large building/table in center unclear as to what purpose is for  Capitolium: sits on large platform, outside porch with columns and inside building were gods would have lived, needs to dominate entire scene  Archways separate forum from the rest of the town  Temple of Apollo: surrounded by columns, on platform, in its own precinct  All artifacts been removed to museums to protect them  Streets are very modern: raised sidewalks, speed bumps, fountains all through city, streets are really narrow only a few wide streets  Street of abundance: various shops, usually an upper floor (lost), lots of graffitti in walls, fast food places  Food places: Thermopolim (Popina), food and drinks served some big were you could sit and eat, others small got food and left o Vats of food stored in counter  Bakeries also faced out into the street, size of bakeries vary  We have paintings of ppl going to go buy the bread  We found examples of bread in pompeii  Arch of Caligula: monuments put up to commemorate something that they have done o Were erected by emperors for themselves  People were buried outside of the town not customary to bury ppl inside town o Herculaneum gate: led out of the city to the street of tombs o Lots of burials found along this road o Romans used cremation but lots of these tombs are quite large, all about status o Big on honoring their ancestors o Some are able to pore liqued into the grave as a libation o Ppl would come back once a year inorder to honor dead  3 bath compexes and 1 being built at time of erruption o Apodyterium: channging room 1st thing done o Tepidarium: warm bath 2nd step o Calidarim: hot room 3rd step o Could then go and and exercise in the palaestra or go into the frigidarium or you could go for a swim in the pool o Heated by furnecases: floors were raised on pillars and have a very modern floor heating  Undergroung fire o Some had hollow walls were heat would collect o In hot room their was a basan of cool water o Something similar to a hot tub o Entrance fee but very minimal o Went every day but went b/c it was a social experience not just to bath o Cuby holds to ut cloths o Hypocaust: roman heating system o Palestrea: used for excersise/ chatting w/ friends o Piscina: pool o Romans thought baths were good to prevent disease but germs thrived o Older rooms were heated by portable gas fires o Calderium: hot room (steam house)  Roman houses varied quite a lot o Popular in pompeii is the atrium house but not all had this house  Atrium house: looked in ward o Street at front o Light comes from front and back o When front door open could see right to back o Around artium were bedroom (cubicula) o Dining room (triclinium) o Ndrone (mans room) could be a study o Then you go into garden: most living done outside o Patio area were covered columns are o Summer Kitchen in the very back to eat in summer time outside o Inside artium was open space to get air and rain that way they could get water  Indentation in floor was ipluvium  Opening in ceiling was compuvium o Bedrooms very dark Lecture Day 10: Pompeii houses ect.  Lots of paintings on the walls, mosaics, carpets to livin up the room  House of the Faun biggest house found in Pompeii o 32ooo sq feet o Has two of everything o Named for a foun that is in he main atrium o Tablium(reception room) mosaic-looks 3d o  Tables and beds we know what they look like and we also are able to take plaster of paris of the artifacts  Kitchen - giant stoves  Latriens often in kitchen  Dinning room- most elegant room -for parties ect  Tables had a garbage pit which food ect would go  Would recline on couches  Slaves prepare meal  Ppl often purged during large parties  Garden: mini oasis o Plants, pools fountains o Would often eat meals outside o Walls would be painted  Some ppl could offered to have water pumped into house  lararium: shrine to household gods o For protection  Snakes were apart of the household deities, most likely represented the protector of the master of the household  House of Vettii: shrine more like an atrium  House of Caecilius o Around edge of larium o Art depicts the earthquakes-thanking gods for saving him/family  1993; relief stolen  Graffiti o Wrote everywhere o Wanted to show their skill in writing o Included:  Election posters  Event posters  Charactertures  Insults  Love notes  Random info  Warnings  Gladiators: were slaves but could be considered great hero's o Fought in amphitheatre o Palaestra right beside each other; gladiators probably trained there o Earliest amphitheatre found (bc) o Could seat the entire town (20000 ppl) o Fought various types of animals (a big hunt) o Sand usually used in the amphitheater base o Able to cover amphitheater with an awning o Three levels, don’t know seating arrangement  Painting that shows riot that happened in 59 ce o Riot occurred /w Pompeian's and another town (gladiators were facing the gladiators from a neibouring town) o Nero closed the theatre for ten years to teach ppl a lesson  Palestra: had changing rooms, medical rooms ect. o Had swimming pool 3ft-8ft  Romans loved arches  Some Pompeian's could afford really rich things ( silver mirrors and dishes, glass jugs) o Lots of statues: in ppls gardens, around city  Romans were great portrait sculpture, goes beyond likeness into character Mable states would have been painted   Lots of jewlery, made from emerald, gold, bronze ect  Loved paintings to make everything more beautiful and brighter  Venus in her conch shell on wall: lots of damage was done to pompeii b/c ppl destroyed walls  Provides most compleate assortment of roman art o Gives idea of history and lifestyle o Shows myths, everyday life, nature ct o Tropleur: when you think you can just step outside through painting o Lots of idealic scenes o Garden scenes common o Portraits in paint o Hair styles and clothing depicted accurately Lecture 13 Schliemann I: Early Years, The search for Troy begins  Goals of the excavator effected the excavation  Schliemann has become a legend in Greek archaeology o Want to see what his goals were? o Why he was excavating? o And the impact it had on the excavation?  Pompeii had already been dug properly for 100 years by the time troy was discovered  Heinrich Schliemann: Father of Archaeology, Father of Greek Archaeology o Discovered the Greek bronze age  Dug at Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns...ect  19th C. Classicist studied great authors- Aeschylus, Sophocles ect. And great architecture- Parthenon  Homer one author: The Iliad and The Odyssey (Achilles, Agamemnon, Mnelaus, Patroclus, Odysseus, Hector, Priam,…) o War took place b/w Greece and Troy o Lasted 10 years  Troy is a very heavily guarded, a Citadel.  Priam and Agamemnon two great kings  Schliemann is tries to find Troy b/c of the Iliad  Homers works are fiction: therefore ppl didn’t believe troy was a real place  Schliemann proved the scholars wrong o Also proved that Mycenae and other great geek cities excited  Bronze Age 3300-1100 bce  Homer 700 c  Many medieval artists draw about the Trojan horse  Trojan war took place somewhere in modern day western Turkey  b/f Schliemann many lured by homer b/c Pompeii was a real place  Troy near Dardanelles was a great walled citadel o SE Mt. Ida, and 2 islands offshore could see troy o 2 rivers near the site, scamander, siois o Mentions great plains below troy  Homer doesn't call the site troy, called Iilion  During classical and Hellenistic periods place called illium novum NW Turkey. Ppl though this was ancient ilios. Remains of c and h period)  In renaissance, visitors to are often shown remains said to be troy. Several places claimed the title  18th C. more interest in trying to find the real location of troy  Robert Wood o 1st to study area properly o Using homer as a guide o Believed Troy really existed  Problem: Topography had changed o Coastline had changed quite a bit since antiquity o Putting site more inland o The two rivers had changed course slightly  Late 8th C. French ambassador at Constantinople got survey done of J.B Chevailer  Troy thought to be a Bunarbaschi  Was acropolis, had acropolis nearby  Cartographer for Survey (F. Kauffe) noted place with ancient remain (Hisarlik)  Edward Clarke identified Hisarlik as Ilium Novum (C and H city)  W. Gell published this in the topography of troy  Jacob BryN (1796) published A DISSERTION saying the war never happened  Frank and Fred Calvert (1828-1908) family owned property partly on Hisarlik  Brother Fred also owned property near Bunarbashi o Thought his site was troy  Frank excavated various sites including Bunabashi o Found remains at Hisarlik convinced that it was troy  Needed more money to dig Hisarlik (needed to buy the land)  Frank appealed to C. Newton BM (British Museum) help pay? BM refused  1865 bought part of the mound: dug oar and found C and H ruins o Not enough money or time to finish  Enter Schliemann: o Born jan66 1822 o Autobiography in Ilios, talks about his early life o Born in eastern Germany o Year after birth moved to Ankershagen (always said his birth place was here) Lecture 15 Schliemann IV: Troy and Mycenae  1872: lots of problems that year o Workmen lazy o Slow o When something interested happen everyone would stop working and watch o Didn’t like how they took a lot of breaks to smoke o Owls too noisy…so he shot them o Area full of poisonous snakes, croaking frogs, insects (which carried malaryia) o Dangr of falling rocks and landslides o Marsh fever- could be malaria; ended the excavation that year  Honest and open as to why there could be contradictions in his work  Believed everything all objects part of history  Paid his workmen for everfind, even if it seemed worthless  Copious records of objects but not architecture o Big mistake o Context of objects lost if we don’t know where they came from  Sure he had troy, scholars not so sure o Attacked by scholoars  Excavation only successful if treasure found- copper, silver, gold earing, pins, ivory , and bone objects o Not a lot of bronze- intressting  Changed his mind and thinks hes on the stratum of the 2nd city and claims it’s the tory of homer  Trouble: o Calverts theory lowest levels of troy should date 2200-1800 BC  Which means S. could of dug right through Priams troy o Calveret compared stuff from other sited also lots of flint stone/ tools and the dates that there artifacts were from was the same as other place=too late  Almost no metals-in homer ver common, no stone or filnt mentioned  So: these levels earlier than Homeric Troy: S. enraged o Would mean that S. had destroyed Priam's troy  Feb 1- june 15 1873 next season o Found scaean gate (a ramp) o Reamains of buildings which he thought was the palace of king priam o None of the walls or gates are dated o Buildings are mostly mud brick, S. dissapointed o May 31 1873 Treasure findspot  Right next to scean gate  Lots of pottey  Jewelery  Sheilds  All found in a grave  Became king priams treasurw o enough to prove scholoars wrong o Treasure made him world famous o Jewels called jewels of helen o Photo of sophia wearing jewels made sophia world famous o Sauce boat most important find he made  Had found great wealth as priam supposedly had  Troy II therefore indeed homeric troy  Nothing with S. is as it seems o Sayas sophia was there when treasure was found, not true but sophia had returened to Athens weeks earlier o Dates changed in diary o Diary writin 2 weeks after treasure found o Why the delay? The permit said half of the find had to go to the government  Treasure removed from site without anybody knowing  Took 6 months for ppl to realize that he had a treasure o In that time site moved from turkey to athens  Think got help from Frank Calverts brother, Fred who owened a shipping company  Turks are not happy, sue him for half of treasure o S.barred from Turkey  Meant the end of the dig at Troy  Still had doubts about Troy II: seemed to small o Didn’t seem fantastic o Not the great citidal  Banned from Turkey so goes to Mycenae to dig o Look for king agamemnon  John morrit visited site in 1795 saw lion gate got inside treasuury f treus  Lord Elgin also here in 1802 dug at T of Atreus too away marble decoration  Treasury of Atreus is similar to the lions gate  1847 Charles Burgon: Article on pottery found at Mycenae  S Never realized why it was important to look at publications  Why? Pots from Myc. And Troy should be similar since sites are contemporary  For S. gold all important but ceramics much more helpful October 19: Arthur Evans Knossoss I  Evans 3rd generation of archaeology  Pompeii: at first accidental discovery of beautiful objects o Led to treasure hunting o Progress eventually especially with Fiorelii  Wanted to keep everything in tact  Schliemann: "Father of Archaeology" o Belief that ancient texts are based on fact o Ancient sites buried and could be found by excavation  His problem was he was to obsessed with homer  Not an honest man  Opened up a new world that nobody knew about 'bronze age'  Trojan war fought in bronze age  Shliemannn was looking for Priam's Troy o Dated the graves found at Myceneea where Agamemnon's (wrong too early)  Crete 260 KM EtoW o Very mountanious  Travellers to Crete by the 15th C, 18th C lots of tourists  Evans not the first to excavate, but most famous  Arthur Evans (1851-1941) o Had great family wealth o Father businessman, scholar, collected british antiques at 20, o E. published article on ancient coins from oxford o E Very good at nothing and describing things in detail o Studied modern history at Oxford University o According to sister E. was conseted and knew better then anyone how special his gifts where o Traveled to balkans ect correspondent for english newspaper o Visited Schliemann in Athens  Changes his foucus from modern to clasical histoy  The situation before evans o Shelimanns great discoviers, much intrest in ancient greece and finding lost sites  Maybe also others would find great treasure too  Homeric pomes now not just fiction after all  If mycenae ad try real why not other places and people mentiond in homer and other  So king minos of crete: great, powerful, wealthy king  Focus of attention: knossoss  Ancient coins found with name inscrbed knossos known as acient site  Homer: metions crete, heavily populatd, knosos is on crete and that king minos ruled for nine terms  Minos Kalokairinos: first to dig found a uilding, large storage jars 1878-79 o Decided that the palace found must belong to king minos- noevidence 4  Others aso dug here in 1880's  1894: Evans first trip to crete o went b/c of small coin shaped amuletes that came from crete o Thought the design on them looked like heiroglyphs o Intrest in crete stemed from his intrest in writing not interest in homer o Met Kalokarinios, fascinated by tales of king minos and his palace o Said the natives had pieces of clay tablets with writing that was diff from the amulets o 1895: published articles and given paper on inscriped gems and tablets o Recognized 2 scripts- one pictoral, other linear o Wanted to buy land, by 1896 got 1/4 of it o Situation in 1890's difficult in crete: turks in control, tensions b/w christians and musilims o 1897 rrevolt against turks o By the end of 1898 turks out and crete free o Evans got permission for dig from new cretan government in 1899 and owners finally agreed o sell rest of lad o He knew that he didn't know everything  Duncan Mackesie (181-1934) had a ph.D in classical archaeology o Had dug on melos o Became evans assistant o Evans director o Mackenzie ran excavation  David Fyfe (1875-1945) o Architect from england o Evans wanted to avoid schliemanns problems  Mar 1900 dig began  No experience but had good helpers  200 workmen with no experience  Dug very quickly  Record keeping: e. kept very good records o Made records in the eveining or on weekends  Came up wth the chronology of the bronze age October 22nd Arthur Ev
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