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Classical Studies
CLST 129

Week 13 Lec 3 January-13-13 9:57 PM Rome started as a few villages on hills - Spread out - Never backed down from a fight - Italy had been held by other population groups ○ Also Greek colonists down there - Sicily occupied by Carthage and Rome - Greece by now is the west coast of Asia Minor, West coast of Black Sea, southern (boot) of Italy, Sicily, Creet, islands of the Aegean, and others in the Mediterranean - Alexander the great gets as far as India (through Assyria, Persia, into western India - Incorporated Greek culture into the cities he took over - Greek Empire - Several monarchy's in the Western part of the Empire ruled by other people (not as good) - Hellenic = Greek; Hellenistic = Greek-like - Rome takes Everything! - Come into contact with Hellenistic peoples - Spread up to Gaul, Farther Spain, Nearer Spain, down to the northern coast of Africa (west of the nile, east of Mauretania; so basically just a little farther west than Carthage) - By 44BC they had Gaul, and the East Coastal regions of the Mediterranean - Julius Caesar = Gaul - Pompey = Syria, Judaea, Nabataea - Augustus (early 1st Cent. AD) takes almost all of Mediterranean shores up to Gaul (modern day France), down to Carthage, to Egypt, up to Greece and over to Asia Minor - Hadrian(2nd Cent. AD) adds England, further west on africa, east of Egypt, east of Galatia (south eastern shore of Black sea), etc - The Nabataean Kingdom: Parts of Syria, Jordan, Egypt; primarily desert (on edge of fertile land) nomadic. - Betyls (aniconic--show your gods not in a human form; not anthropomorphic) shrines to Nabataean gods - Nabataeans were experts at figuring out where the rain was going to flood in the desert ○ They would bury their cistern in a hol ○ Small hole led to a big chamber ○ Might dig into rock face if available; ○ Or would dig into sand, line with stones and cover with plaster to hold the water - 2nd Century BC - big change in Nabataean Civ. ○ Architecture ○ They cared about how much they have: § Those who diminish their savings are punished § Those who increase their savings are commended ○ Carved architecture out of rock faces ○ Oxen- no longer travelling; domesticated animals ○ Growing crops ○ Trade ○ Literacy ○ Coinage ○ Monarchy depicted through the coins ○ Location Location Location § Capital city is Petra § North west Arabia § North east bay of the red sea ○ Frankincense and myrrh - Petra ○ Theatre: Greek influence (carved into mountain side ○ Tombs based on Greek architecture ○ (Petra was probably named by the Greeks) § "The Rock" so much rock; whole city is basically all carved into rock ○ Start to carve anthropomorphic images of gods ○ Influenced by the Greeks ○ But they are still independent of the Greeks, and then the Romans ○ At some point it was not appropriate to have anthropomorphic images on buildings at Petra so they were rubbed off ○ Sik - 1km long entrance to Petra § Ceremonial entrance § Protection - 27km long aqueduct - Can't protect that - Probably a peaceful area/time because they could have an unprotected aqueduct that civilization clung to - Lots of Christian churches in Humayma - Abbasid family overthrows and takes control of the Muslim world; lived at Humayma - After that, the site kinda dwindles away Week 14 Lec 1 Jan 14 January-15-13 1:13 PM Chronology  Humayma: Nabatian town  Romans annexed town, built fort big enough for 500 soldiers  After romans 5 byzantine churches  Later a Qaser and Mosque appear, not a big population but lots of visators, route to mecca  Carbonization from fire saved ivory  Abbasid (family) elite, spearhead conspiracy to overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate and the empire for themselves  King Naboidus of Babylon o One of the kings of the Mesopotamian cities o Lived in place where people had lived for hudreads of years before him o Wanted to know more so dug beneath a temple and found script and objects o Put them in a private museum  Helena, Mother of Constantine o Mother is christine o Went to jerusulume to seek ought the cross which jesus was crucified on o Attracted to a barren hill outside city by sweet smelling plant o Has servant dig and finds a cross o Puts cross on display for other pilgrims  People interested in things that connect them to their past  Collection 14 C-19C  Classification late 19C- 1940's  Explanation 1950's- today  Collection phase starts in 14th C with the renicasnse, the rebirth of W. Europe  Rebirth due to the rediscovery of greece and Rome  Wealthy individuals buying and kings collecting in their territories  Too get collections looting occurred  Grand tour- elite members of W. Europe and N. America would tour europe but would end in S. Italy, wanted to experience culture , S. Italy where all the good antiques where being found  Kings and govts. Started establishing museums  Sir William Hamilton British Ambassador to the king of two Sicily's o Starts as a private collector o Starts to believe that the artifacts should be shared o Convinces British Government to buy part of his collection o Portland vase one of the most famous (cameo Carving) blown glass o Media campaign about the portland vase  Wedgewood movement occurs but happens in porcelain  Napoleon makes access for W. Europe to E. Europe and Egypt  Begin of W. Europes appreciation of the East  Napoleon takes 175 scholars with him  The rossetta stone one of the most famous finds  Lord Elgin British Ambassador to Ottoman Empire o Traveled to athens and saw the parthenon and araged to have parts of the site brought back to england o Ended up removing pecies from the still standing site Week 14 Lec 3 Jan 25 January-28-13 12:22 PM  Start with hammer stone and some waste, end up with sharpened stones and more waste (acquisition and then manufacturing)  Site formation processes o The processes by which the archaeological material was originally buried; and o The processes by which buried remains were later transformed by natural and human factors  Number 1: o Pompeii --> sudden burial of "living" town -- unusual situation!!  In contrast, archaeological Tell - hill of buried remains; didn't start as a hill; civilizations build on top of each other  A huge mound of many different cultural periods built on top of each other  Number 2:  Natural factors = natural formation processes o Preservation o Displacement o Different artifacts will preserve differently; some in wet conditions; some dry; some hot; some cold; some for days or weeks (flesh) some for years (bone) some for millions of years (glass) o Dry preservation -- king tut o Very very wet sites will preserve things that normal biodegrade  Ozette site: Washington state north west pacific (orca whale dorsal fin made of wood with otters teeth inlayed; preserved) o Displacement o Environmental factors can shift things  Rodents deserve to die. Human factors = cultural formation processes Week 15 Lec 1 Jan 21 January-31-13 6:14 PM  What is archaeology? o Hands on side of history studying the past o The study of our physical heritage  The study of our human past, combining themes of time and change using the material remains that have survived  Scientific method- way of collecting, analyzing ad presenting data in respectable way o Ask question o Form hypothesis o Conduct lab work/field work o organize and analyse data o See if it supports hypothesis  Yes- draw conclusion  No- re construct hypothesis  Academic archaeology ( research driven) o Vs  Cultural resource management (development) (CRM)  Academic, proffesors feel the world should know  CRM devlp. Driven before buildings are built or effect what is below ground or cultural heritage  Evaluating science and Pseudoscence o Science explains the correctness of the explantations through careful data collection and careful analysis o Pseudoscience avoids or disallows the scientific method o Culture is an anthropological term refering o the non-biological characteristics unique to a particular society  The focus of archeaology is the search for evidince of our cultural devlp. Through time o Basic questions about human society  Demography- human pop., how spread, birth/ death rates, geological extent o Graves good for social economic and male and female roles  Enviorment- the natural and the social mileu n which human societies operate  Technology- a societies way of converting natural resources into human made products o (eg.hammer evolution)  Why changes happen to technology o Invention Creation/devlp. Of new ideas o Diffusion- borrowing from other areas o Migration- people bring new ideas to an area  Economy- the means used to obtain resources for maintenance or growth Week 16 Lec 1 Jan 28 February-08-13 8:27 PM  Survey o Site reconnaissance
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